in a newspaper, magazine, or work of reference; a material tiling, as one of a class; an item; a point of duty, faith, or doctrine; one of the words (an (a before consonant-sounds], the indefinite article, and the, the definite article [see a, an, & the]) used before nouns or substantives to define or limit their application; a jointed segment connecting two parts of a limb or body: v.l. to bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; specify.
articular (ar-tik'u-lar), adj. pertaining to the joints or to a joint.
articulate (ar-tik'u-lat), t>.(. to joint; unite by means of a joint; to form words; utter in distinct syllables; speak as a human being: v.i. to unite or form an articulation (with); utter articulate sounds; speak with distinctness: adj. jointed; formed with joints; segmented; characterized by- syllabic division; uttered with distinctness.
articulation (ar-tik-u-la'shun), n. the act of jointing; the act of speaking distinctly; a distinct utterance; the state of being articulated; a joint or juncture between bones; the point of separation of organs or parts of a plant; a node or joint of the stem, or the space between two nodes.
artioulator (ar-tik'u-la-ter), n. one who pronounces distinctly; an instrument to cure stammering; an apparatus attached to a telephone to secure regularity of tone; one who mounts skeletons.
artifice (ar'ti-fis), n. an artful or crafty device; an ingenious expedient; a trick or stratagem: a manoeuvre.
artificer (ar-tifi-ser), n. a skilled or artistic worker; a mechanic; a maker or constructor; an inventor.
artificial (ar-ti-fish'al), adj. made or contrived by art; produced by human skill or labor; feigned; unreal; assumed; affected; not genuine or natural.
artificiality (ar-ti-fish-i-al'i-ti), n. the quality of being unreal or unnatural; that which is artificial.
artificially (ar-ti-fish'a-li), adv. by human skill or contrivance.
artillery (ar-til'Ier-i), n. cannon; great guns; ordnance of all kinds, with its
equipment of carriages, men, and material; the officers and men forming the artillery division of an army; the science which treats of the use or management of ordnance.
artisan (ar'ti-zan), n. one skilled in any art or trade; a mechanic; a handicraftsman.
artist (ar'tist), one skilled in any branch of high art, as music, painting, sculpture, poetry, &c.
artiste (iir-test'), n. one who is an expert in any branch of professional art other than the fine arts, as a public singer, cook, &c. [French.]
artistic (iir-tis'tik), adj. pertaining to art or to artists; characterized by Esthetic feeling or conformity to the principles of a school of art.
artistically (iir-tis'ti-ka-li), adv. in a manner conformable to the rules and principles of art.
artistry (ar'tis-tri), n. the quality of an artist.
artless (artles), adj. lacking art; unskilful; devoid of cunning; simple; natural; undesigning; unaffected; ingenuous.
Aryan (ar'yan), adj. pertaining to the Aryans (i.e. the Indo-Europeans), or to their languages. (See Introduction, part ii.)
as (az), conjunct.adv. proportionate to; comparable to; like.
as (as), n. [pi. asses (as'sez)], a Roman weight equivalent to the libra or pound.
asafetlda or asafoetlda (as-a-fet'i-da), n. a fetid sap of an onion-like odor obtained from the roots of several large umbelliferous plants of Persia and Afghanistan, and used by the natives of those countries to season their food.
asbestos (as-bcs'tos) or asbestus Ctus), n. a fibrous variety of hornblende, separable into flexible filaments and flax-like appearance and silky luster, and possessing the property of being incombustible.
ascend (as-scnd'), v.i. to take an upward direction; mount; go up; rise; to proceed from an inferior to a superior; rise from a lower to a higher pitch or tone: v.t. to go or move upward upon; climb; go upward along.
4te, ftrm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, book; 66
ascendable (as-sen'da-bl) or ascen- dible (as-sen'di-bl), adj. capable of being climbed or navigated.
ascendancy (as-sen'dan-si) or ascendency (as-sen'den-si), n. a governing or controlling power or influence; domination.
ascendant (as-sen'dant) or ascendent (as-scn'dent), adj. rising; superior; predominant; above the horizon: n. superiority or commanding influence; predominance; an ancestor, or one who precedes in genealogy or degrees of kindred; opposed to descendant; the particular zodiacal sign appearing above the horizon at the time of one's birth.
ascension (as-sen'shun), n. the act of moving upward; a rising; the ascent of our Lord to heaven; the rising of a star or point above the celestial horizon.
Ascension Day (da), n. a movable feast to commemorate Christ's ascension into heaven, celebrated on the Thursday next but one before Whit-Sunday: also called Holy Thursday.
ascent (as-sent'), n. the act of rising; an upward movement; the act of climbing; the way or means of reaching a height; an acclivity; an upward slope.
ascertain (as-ser-tan'), v.l. to make certain; find out or determine definitely by test or examination.
ascertainment (as-ser-tan'mcnt), n. the act of ascertaining.
ascetic (as-set'ik), adj. exceedingly rigid in the exercise of religious duties and mortification of worldly desires: n. one who renounces the world and devotes himself to religious exercises; one who subjects nimself to severe disciplinary methods of living; a hermit; a recluse.
ascetically (as-set 1-ka-li), adv. in an ascetical manner.
asceticism (as-set'i-sizm), n. the condition or mode of life adopted by one who renounces worldly matters; austerity.
ascribable (a-skri'ba-bl). adj. capable of being attributed or imputed.
ascribe (a-skrlb'), v.t. to attribute, impute, or refer; assign; attribute.
ascription (a-skrip'shun), n. the act
of attributing or imputing; that which is assigned.
aseptic (a-sep'tik), adj. free from the germs of disease or putrefaction; not liable to putrefy: an aseptic substance.
asexual (a-seks'u-al), adj. not sexual; produced by other than sexual processes.
asexually (a-seks'u-a-li), adv. in a manner other than by conjunction of the sexes: applied to reproduction.
ash (ash), n. the name popularly applied to trees of the genus Fraxinus, many of which supply valuable timber; the wood of the ash-tree: adj. pertaining to, or like, the ash; made of ash.
ash (ash), n. [pi. ashes (ash'ez)], the residue of plant or animal substance remaining after subjection to red- heat: pi. the waste of burned coal; the remains of a human body when cremated; hence a corpse.
ashamed (a-shiimd'), p.adj. affected or touched by shame; cast down or dejected by conscious guilt; abashed by a sense of indecorum; reluctant through fear of shame [followed by an infinitive].
ashen (ash'n), adj. pertaining to the ash-tree; made of ash; of the color of ashes; pale.
ashore (a-shor'). adv. on shore; to the shore; on land.
aside (a-sid'), adv. on or to one side; out of a given direction; apart; away from: n. a speech or utterance not intended for the present company; a remark made by an actor on the stage, and assumed to be heard only by the person for whom it is intended.
asinine (as'irnln), adj. pertaining to the ass; having the nature or characteristics of an ass.
aslninity (as-i-nin'i-ti), n. the quality of being asinine; obstinate stupidity.
ask (ask), v.l. to request; seek to obtain by words; petition or beg for; claim or demand; expect or require; inquire respecting; interrogate; invite: v.i. to prefer by request; inquire after.
askance (a-skans') or askant (a- skant'), adv. sideways; obliquely; awry; from the corner of the eye; aslant.
flte, arm, at, awl; me, merge, mot: mitp. mil; note, north, not; boon, book; 57
askew (a-sku'), adv. obliquely; awry; out of position or arrangement.
aslant (a-slant'), adi\ not at right angles; sloping; oblique; slanting- athwart.
asleep (a-slep'), adj. & adv. sleeping; in a state of slumber; dormant.
aslope (a-slop'), adv. in a sloping direction.
asoak (a-sok'), adv. in a state of saturation or soaked with moisture.
asp (asp), n. a small venomous snake of Egypt; the common viper, or adder, of Europe; a royal symbol of ancient Egypt.
asparagus (as-par'a-gus), n. a plant having tender edible shoots.
aspect (as'peckt), n. visual or mental appearance; look; mien; air; outlook or prospect; the relative position of the planets as viewed from the earth; appearance.
aspen (as'pen), n. a species of poplar whose leaves have the property of trembling in the slightest breeze; adj. pertaining to the asp-tree; quivering like an aspen-leaf.
asper (as'per), adj. rugged; hard; warlike: n. the mark () in Greek, to indicate the rough breathing, or aspirate sounded like an h.
asperity (as-per'i-ti), n. [pi. asperities (as-per'i-tiz)], roughness of surface; roughness or harshness of sound; sourness; bitterness of taste or temper.
aspnrmous (a-sper'mus), adj. without seed; not producing seed.
asperse (as-pers'), v.t. to besprinkle; injure in reputation by calumny; slander.
aspersion (as-per'shun), n. a sprinkling as of dust or water; injury by false and caluminous charges or reports; slander.
asphalt (as'falt), n. a compact, brittle variety of native bitumen, employed for the purpose of paving, roofing, and cementing: v.t. to lay or cover with asphalt.
asphalt ic (as-fal'tik), adj. of the nature of, composed of, or containing asphalt.
asphodel (as'fo-del), n. the name of several plants of the liliaceous genus Asphodelus; the daffodil of the older English poets; the unfading plant of
the dead, which covered the meadows of Hades.
asphyxia (as-fik'si-a).n. the condition of fifclessness occasioned by suspension or interruption of respiration.
aspic (as'pik), n. a venomous asp; the plant known as the great lavender; a side-dish composed of game, fish, &c., encased in clear savory meat-jelly.
aspirant (as-pi'rant), adj. aspiring; ambitious: n. one who seeks to attain, or aspires to, a high object.
aspirate (as pi-rat), v.t. to pronounce with a full breathing; to prefix the sound of the letter h: n. the sound of the letter h, as in horse; the mark or sign used to denote the sound: adj. pronounced with the audible breath.
aspirates (as'pi-ratz), n. in English, the rough mutes, those letters which have an h associated with them, as p, t, c, making ph, ih, ch.
aspiration (as-pi-ra'shun), n. the act of aspirating; an aspirated sound; a breath; the yearning desire for something higher or better than that already possessed; ambition.
aspiratory (as-pi'ra-to-ri), adj. pertaining to breathing; suited to the inhaling of air.
aspire (as-plr'), v.i. to seek after or desire with longing; yearn for that which is better or nobler; rise or ascend; to soar: v.t. to breathe to, or into; breathe forth; soar to.
asquint (a-skwint'), adv. with a squint; to or out of the corner of the eye; obliquely.
ass (as), ?i. a quadruped of the genus Equis, allied to the horse, usually employed in its domesticated state as a beast of burden; a dull, stupid fellow.
assafoetida. See asafetida.
assail (as-sal'), v.t. to fall upon or attack with vehemence; attack with argument or abuse.
assailant (as-sa'lant), adj. assaulting; attacking: n. one who, or that which, assails.
assassin (as-sas'sin), n. one who slays treacherously or by covert assault; one who kills, or attempts to kill, secretly as the agent of another or others, or for reward; formerly one ASSASSINATE
ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit: note, north, not; boon, book;
of a band of Syrian fanatics (hash- hashin), who committed murder at the command of their chief, in the hope of winning heaven.
assassinate (as-sas'si-nat), >\i. to kill, or attempt to kill, by secret or treacherous means; slay suddenly or unawares; murder.
assassination (as-sas-i-na'shun), n. the act of slaying in secret, or at the bidding or reward of others; murder.
assault (as-sawlt'), n. an attack with violence by physical means; an onslaught; an attack by military force; a violent attack by moral force; an attempt or threat to do bodily violence or injury to another; the charge of an attacking party on a fortified position: v.t. to attack violently; storm, as by armed force; attack by moral force; attack a fortified position by a sudden charge.
assay (as-sa'), n. the act or process of determining by analysis trie quantity or proportion of any one or more metals in a metallic compound, ore, or alloy, especially the standard purity of gold or silver coin or bullion; the substance or metal to be assayed: v.t. [p.t. &, p.p. -?,&, p.pr. -ing], to subject to analysis; to determine the quantity or proportion of one or more of the constituents of a metal,
assayer (as-sa'5r), n. one who assays; an officer of the U. S. Mint appointed to test the purity of bullion and coin.
assemblage (as-sem'blaj), n. the act of assembling; the state of being assembled; a group or collection of persons or particular things.
assemble (as-sem'bl), v.t. to collect or gather together in one place or body; congregate: v.i. to meet or come together; convene.
assembly (as-sem'bli), n. \nl. assemblies (as-sem'bliz)], a collection or company of persons brought together in one place, and for a common object; a nifting; a congregation.
assemblyniiii> (as-sem'bli-man), n. a member of a legislative assembly.
assent (as-sent'), e.i. to admit as true: concede; agree to; consent: n. the act of agreeing to: consent: acquiescence; approval; concurrence.
assentation (as-sen-ta'shun), n. com
pliance with the opinion of another, in flattery or obsequiousness.
assentlent (as-sen'shi-ent), adj. assenting: n. one who assents.
assert (as-sert'), v.t. to maintain; declare positively, or with assurance; aver; affirm; defend or vindicate; declare.
assertion (as-ser'shun), n. the act of asserting; that which is asserted; positive declaration; allegation; maintenance or defense.
assertive (as-s6r'tiv), adj. positive; dogmatical; confident in assertion.
assertor (as-ser'ter), n. one who asserts; one who maintains or defends.
assertory (as-ser'to-ri), adj. affirming; supporting.
assess (as-ses'), v.t. to fix or determine, as damages; fix, rate, or set a certain charge upon, as a tax; estimate or value officially for the purpose of taxation.
assessed taxes (as-sest' taks'ez), n.pl. taxes levied on income, houses, and property.
assessment (as-ses'ment), n. the act of assessing or determining an amount to be paid; an official valuation of property, or income, for the purpose of taxation; the specific sum levied as tax, or assessed for damages.
assessor (as-ses'er), n. one appointed to assess property or persons for taxation.
assessorial (as-ses-so'ri-al), adj. pertaining to an assessor.
assets (as'sets), n.pl. the property, whether real or personal, of a deceased pers9n which is subject by law to the dijchaigc of his debts and legacies: the property or effects of an niso'vent Debtor which are available for the satisfaction of his creditors; the entire property of a trader or company of tra,leis.
asseverate (as-sev'ci-ut), v.t. to affirm or aver positively, or with solemnity.
asseveration (as-sev-er-a'shun), n. a solemn affirmation or declaration, as upon oath.
assibilate (as-sib'i-lilt), v.t. to pronounce with a hissing sound; to alter another letter to a sibilant, as English out is the German aus.
assibilation (as-sib-i-la'shun), n. pronunciation with a hissing sound; the ASSIDUITY
ate, arm, at, nwl; me, merge, met; mite, mit: note, north, not; boon, book;
change of a dental or guttural mute into a sibilant or a similar sound.
assiduity (as-si-du'i-ti), n. [pi. assiduities (as-si-du'i-tiz) ], close application or unremitting attention to; diligence: pi. studied and persevering attention to pjease.
assiduous (as-sid'u-us). adj. constant in application; devotedly attentive.
assign (as-sln'), v.t. to appoint, mark out. apportion, make over; fix; designate for a specific purpose; point out exactly; to transfer or make over to another, as for the benefit of creditors : n. an appurtenance; one to whom property or interest is assigned by will or deed.
asslgnat (French a-se-nya'), n. a promissory note issued by the French Revolutionary Government (1789- 96), and secured by the public lands,
assignation (as-ig-na'shun), n. the act of assigning; an appointment to meet [used chiefly of love-meetings and in a bad sense]; the transfer of title, or the deed of transferment.
assignee (as-si-ne'), n. one to whom an assignment of anything is made, either in trust or for his own use and enjoyment.
assignment (as-sln'ment), n. a setting apart, allotment, or appointment to some particular person or use; transfer of title or interest; the deed of writing effecting such a transfer.
assignor (as-si'n6r), n. one who assigns or transfers an interest.
assimilable (as-sim'i-la-bl), adj. capable of being assimilated.
assimilate (as-sira'i-lat). v.t. to bring into conformity or agreement with something else; convert or incorporate into organic substance; absorb or appropriate, as nourishment: t'.i. to be converted into or become incorporated with the substance of the animal body.
assimilation (as-sim-i-la'shun), n. the art or process of assimilating: the rtate of being assimilated. So in English we have colatcral (con- latpral), becoming collateral by assimilation.
assimilative (as-sim'i-la-tiv), adj. having the power of assimilating, or causing assimilation.
assist (as-sist'), v.t. to help; aid; give support to; attend: ti.i. to lend help or aid.
assistance (as-sis'tans), n. help; furtherance; aid; succor; support.
assistant (as-sis'tant), adj. helping; lending aid; auxiliary: n. one who, or that which, assists; a helper; an auxiliary.
asslstful (as-sist'fool), adj. helpful.
assize (as-slz'), n. [pi. assizes (as-slz'ez)], a court or session of justice for the trial by jury of civil or criminal cases: the sessions held periodically in each county of England by judges of the High Court [usually in the pi.]; the time or place of holding the assize [usually in the pi.].
assizement (as-slz ment), n. an inspection of weights and measures, enacted by statute.
assizer or asslzor (as-si'zer), n. a juror.
associate (as-so'shi-at), v.t. to unite; join with; connect; accompany, as a companion, friend, or confederate: v.i. to unite in company; keep company; unite in action: adj. joined in interest, object, or purpose; sharing office or employment, as a colleague or partner; connected by habit, function, or sympathy: n. a companion; a confederate; an ally; one belonging to a society or institution, usually of a lower grade than a Member or Fellow.
association (as-so-shi-a'shun), n. the act of associating or state of being associated; union; conjunction; an associate body of persons formed for a common object; a society.
associative (as-so'shi-a-tiv), adj. tending to or characterized by association.
assonance (as'so-nans), n. resemblance of sound; a species of rhyme which consists in the use of the same vowel-sound in the last syllable of words having different consonants. Assonance is common in Spanish poetry in place of rhyme.
assonant (as'so-nant), adj. having resemblance of sound; pertaining to, or possessing, assonance.
assort (as-sort'), v.t. to divide or separate into lots according to arrangement; to classify; arrange: