or designs buildings and superintends their construction, hence one who forms or designs.
architect! ve (ar'ki-tek-tiv), adj. used in building; proper for building.
architectonics (ar-ki-tck-ton'iks), n.pl. the science of architecture.
architectural (ar-ki-tek'tu-ral), adj. pertaining to the art of building; in accordance with the rules of the building art.
architecturally (ar-ki-tek'tu-ra-li), adv. with regard to the principles of the building art; from tne designer's point of view.
architecture (ar'ki-tek-tur), n. the science or art of building; the method or style of building; construction; workmanship.
architrave (ar'ki-trav), n. the lowest division of an entablature, or thai part which rests immediately on the column.
archival (ar-ki'val), adj. pertaining to. or included in, state records.
archive (ar'kiv), n. [pi. archives (ar'- klvz)], a record preserved as evidence: pi. the place where public or state records are kept; state or public documents, or records of historical value pertaining to a nation or to a family.
archly (arch'li), adv. roguishly; waggishly; coyly.
archness (arch'nes), n. feigned shyness; coyness.
archon (ar'kon), n. a chief magistrate of ancient Athens; one of the nine chief magistrates chosen to superintend civil and religious matters.
archpztost (ilrch'prest), n. a chief Driest; a rural dean.
arci.way (arch'wa), n. an opening or passage beneath an arched or vaulted roof.
arcograph (ark'o-graf), n. an instrument for drawing nn arc without the use of a central point.
arctic (iirk'tik), adj. pertaining to the region of the north pole; polar; northern; frigid.
arctic circle (ser'kl), n. an imaginary circle parallel to the equator and distant 23° 2S' from the north pole..
ardent (iir'dent), adj. hot; burning: fiery; warm; glowing; passionate; eager; zealous; vehement.
ardent spirits (spir'itz), n.pl. alcoholic beverages, as brandy, whiskey, &c.
ardor (ar'der), n. heat in a physical sense; warmth of affection or passion; eager desire; zeal.
arduous (ilr'du-us), adj. steep: hard to climb; attended with great labor or exertion; difficult.
are (iir), pres. tense pi. of the verb to be. See be.
are (ar), n. the unit of French superficial or square measure containing 100 sq. meters or 1076.44 English sq. ft.
area (a're-a), n. [vl. areas (a're-az)], any pl
arena (a-re'na), n. [pi. arenas (a-re'- naz)], the central enclosed space (usually strewn with sand) of a Roman amphitheater, in which the gladiatorial combats took place; hence the scene or field of combat or exertion of any kind.
arenaceous (ar-e-na'shus), adj. sandy; abounding in, or having the properties of, sand.
Areopagus (ar-e-op'a-gus), n. the tribunal, or Highest court, of ancient Athens, so named from its situation on the hill of Ares (Mars); hence any- high court or tribunal.
Argand lamp (ar-gand' lamp), n. a lamp having a hollow circular wick to permit the passage of air inside and outside the flame.
argent (iir'jent), n. the silver of a coat of arms, represented in drawing or engraving by a plain white surface, symbolical of purity, beauty, &c.: adj. made of, or resembling, silver; silvery white; bright like silver.
argontite (ar'jen-tit), «. sulphide of silver of a lead-grey color.
argentous (iir-jen'tus), adj. pertaining to. or containing, silver.
argil (iir'jil), n. potters' clay or earth.
argillaceous (iir-ji-la'shus), adj. of
ate, arm, at, awl; me, mgrge, met; mite, mit: note, ulrth, not; boon, book;
the nature of, or containing, clay; clayey.
argiliite (Sr'ji-lit), n. clay-slate.
argol (ar'gol), n. a crude tartar from which cream of tartar is prepared.
argon (ar'gun), n. an element associated with nitrogen, and forming one of the constituents of the air.
Argonaut (iir'go-nawt), n. a cepha- lopod commonly known as the paper- nautilus, and paper-sailor of the Mediterranean; from the myth of the Argo and its crew, who sailed under the command of Jason in search of the Golden Fleece.
argosy (ar'go-si), n. [pi. argosies (ar'go- sizjf, a large richly-freighted merchant-vessel.
argot (ar'go), n. slang; cant language. [French.]
arguable (ar'gu-a-bl), adj. capable of wring disputed or discussed.
argue (ar^gu), v.i. to show or offer reasons in support 9f, or in opposition to, a proposition, opinion, or measure; to reason, dispute, discuss; contend in debate: t'.l. to debate or discuss; prove or evince.
argument (ar'gu-ment), n. that which is advanced in support or proof with a view to persuade or convince the mind; a discussion, controversy, or debate; the subject of a discourse or writing; an abstract or summary of a book.
argumental (ar-gu-men'tal), adj. pertaining to reasoning; consisting of reasons.
argumentation (ar-gu-men-ta'shun), n. the act of argjiing; discussion.
argumentative (ar-gu-men'ta-tiv), adj. consisting of, or exhibiting, p, process of reasoning; addicted to argument; disputatious.
Argus-eyed (argus-Id), adj. watchful; vigilant; extremely observant.
aria (ar'e-a & ar'i-a), n. an air; a melody or tune for single voice with accompaniment; a solo part, in a cantata or oratorio, Ac. [Italian.]
Arlan (a'ri-an), adj., pertaining to the doctrines of the Arian sect, which held that Christ is not divine.
Arlanlsm (a'ri-an-ism), the doctrine of the Arians, who denied the divinity of Christ. From Arius, an African, who founded the sect.
arid (ar'id), adj. dry; parched up; barren.
aridity (a-rid'i-ti) or aridness (ar'id- nes), n. the state of being dry; dry- ness; want of life or interest.
arietta (ar-e-et'ta), n. a short song or ah-. [Italian.]
aright (a-rft'), adv. rightly; in a right way or form; without sin or error.
arise (a-nz'), v.i. [p.t. arose, p.p. arisen, p.pr. arising], to mount up or ascend; to come into view; rise or get up; spring up; come into existence or action; originate.
aristocracy (ar-is-tok'ra-si), n. [pi. aristocracies (ar-is-tok'ra-siz)l, government by persons of the highest rank in a state; the nobility or chief persons in a state.
aristocrat (ar'is-to-krat), n. a personage of rank and noble birth; one who upholds the aristocracy or favors government by the nobles; a person who possesses traits supposed to characterize the nobility.
aristocratic (ar-is-to-krat'ik) or arls- tocratlcal (ar-is-to-krat'i-kal), adj. pertaining to, or consisting in, a government of the nobles; pertaining to, or characteristic of, the higher class or nobility. [Greek.]
aristocratically (ar-is-to-krat'i-ka-li), adv. in an aristocratic manner.
aristocratlsm (ar'is-to-krat-izm & ar-is-tok'ra-tizm), n. the rank, condition, or privileges of one of noble birth; the principles of aristocracy.
arithmetic (a-rith'me-tik), n. the science of numbers; the art of computation by figures. [Greek.]
arithmetical (ar-ith-met'i-kal), adj. of or pertaining to arithmetic.
arithmetically (ar-ith-met'i-ka-li), adv. according to the rules or methods of arithmetic.
arithmetician (a-rith-me-tish'an), n. one skilled in the science of numbers.
arithmometer (ar-ith-mom'e-ter), n. a calculating machine which performs multiplication and division. [Greek.]
ark (ark), n. the repository of the Covenant, or tables of the Law, in the Jewish Tabernacle (Exod. xxv). and subsequently placed in the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings viii); the vessel in which Noah and his family were preserved during the Deluge, ARM
f, inn, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nOrth, not; boon, book; 52
hence a place of safety or refuge; a large boat used for transporting produce on American rivers.
arm (arm), n. the limb of the human body which extends from the shoulder to the hand; the anterior or fore- limb of any vertebrate animal; any projecting or diverging organ or part of a mam body or trunk, as the tentacle of a star-fish, the branch of a tree, an inlet of the sea, &c.; might; power; support.
arm (arm), n. a weapon; a branch of the military service: ;>.(. to furnish or equip with weapons of offense or defense; fortify or provide against; furnish with an armament: v.i. to fit one's self with arms, or take to one's self means of defense.
armada (ar-ma'da), n. a fleet of armed vessels; a squadron; the Spanish fleet despatched against England in 1588, by Philip II, and destroyed by the English off the coast.
armadillo (ar-ma-dil'o). n. [pi. armadillos (ar-ma-dil'oz)], a South American quadruped, armed with a bony shell divided into belts consisting of numerous small plates, and resembling a coat of mail; an electric battery so named, worn round the body as a cure for nervous and other affections. [Spanish.]
armament (ar'ma-ment), n. a body of forces equipped for war, either military or naval; the cannon and small arms collectively of a warship or fortification; the number and weight of guns of a war-vessel.
armature (ar'ma-tur), n. armor: that which serves as a means of defense; a piece of soft iron connecting the poles of a magnet, or electro-magnet, to preserve and increase the magnetic force; iron bars or frame-work used to strengthen_a building.
arm-chair (arm'char), n. a chair furnished with supports for the elbows.
armful (arm'fool), n. as much as can be compassed by the arms.
armistice (ar'mis-tis), n. a temporary cessation of hostilities agreed upon by opposing forces; a truce.
armlet (arm'lct). n. a small arm of the sea; a metal band for the arm used for ornament or for protection.
armolre (ar-mwar'), n. a movable cupboard with doors. [French.]
armor (ar'mer), n. defensive arms; protective covering for the body in battle; the steel plating of a warship.
armor-clad (ar'mcr-klad), adj. ironclad: n. a war vessel protected by- steel plating.
armor-grating (ar'mer-gra'ting), n. a deep iron grating used to protect the boilers of ironclads from missiles during an engagement.
armor-plate (ar'mer-plat), n. a plate of iron or steel intended to be affixed to the side of a ship as part of a casing for protection against shell- fire.
armorer (ar'mor-er), n. formerly a maker of arms or armor, or one who had charge of the armor of another; the custodian of the arms of a troop or battleship.
armorial (ar-mo'ri-al), adj. pertaining to armor or to the arms or escutcheon of a family: n. a book or dictionary of heraldic devices and the names of persons entitled to use them.
armory (ar'mer-i), n. [pi. -ries. (-riz)], a place for arms or the assemblage of soldiers; a manufactory of arms.
armozeen or armozhie (ar-mo-zen'), n. a thick plain silk, generally black, used for clerical robes.
arm-pit (arm'-pit), n. the cavity beneath the shoulder: the axilla.
arms (armz), n.pl. weapons of offense or defense; the military service; war as a profession; armorial bearings. So "coat-of-arms."
army (ar'mi), n. [pi. armies (ar'rniz)], a body of men trained and equipped for war, and organized in regiments, brigades, or similar divisions under proper officers; a great number or multitude; an organized body of persons engaged in moral warfare.
army-worm (ar'mi-wcrm), n. the larva of a moth which devastates grain and other crops.
arnica (iir'ni-ka), n. a genus of perennial herbs; the mountain tobacco: from the roots or flowers of a species of this herb a valuable external remedy for bruises is made.
aroma (a-ro'ma), n. [pi. aromas (a-ro'- rnaz)], the odor exhaled by plants or other substances, generally of an AROMATIC
ate, arm, at, aw]; me, merge, met; mite, rait; note, nOrth, not; boon, book ; 53
agreeable or spicy nature; perfume; fragrance.
aromatic (ar-o-mat'ik) or aromatical (ar-6-mat'i-kal), adj. giving out aroma; fragrant; spicy; odoriferous: n. a plant, herb, or drug yielding a fragrant smell.
aromatically (ar-o-mat'i-ka-li), adv. with an aromatic taste or smell.
aromatic-vinegar (ar-6-mat'ik-vin'e- gar), n. a powerful perfume composed of strong acetic acid, the essential oils of lavender, camphor, &c.
aromatous (a-ro'ma-tus), adj. full of fragrance; aromatic.
arose (a-roz'), p.t. of arise.
around (a-round'), adv. in a circle; on every side; roundabout: prep, about; on all sides; encircling; encompassing.
arousal (a-rou'zal), n. the act of awakening; the state of being awakened.
arouse (a-rouz'), v.t. to excite or stir to action; put in motion that which is at rest; awaken from sleep or a state of inactivity; stimulate; animate.
arow (a-ro'), adv. in a row; in order; successively.
arraign (a-ran'), v.t. to summon or set, as a prisoner at the bar of a court to answer to a charge; censure publicly; impeach; indict.
arraignment (a-ran'ment), n. an accusation; an impeachment.
arrange (a-ranj'), v.t. to put in proper order or sequence; classify; adjust or settle; adapt; group.
arrangement (a-ranj'ment), n. the act of putting in proper form or order; that which is ordered or disposed; the method or style of disposition; a preparatory measure; preparation; settlement; classification; adjustment; adaptation.
arrant (ar'ant), adj. notorious; unmitigated; thorough or downright (in a bad sense); shameless.
arras (ar'as), n. tapestry: hangings made of some rich figured fabric.
arrasene or arasene (ar-as-sen'), n. a kind of mixed thread of wool and silk used in raised embroidery.
array (ar-ra'), n. order; the grouping or arrangement of a body of men as drawn up for battle; an orderly
collection or series of things imposingly displayed; dress arranged on the person; apparel: v.l. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, p.pr. -ing], to place or dispose in order; marshal; deck or dress.
arrayal (ar-ra'al), n. the process of arraying.
arrear (ar-rer'), n. the state of being behind-hand; that which is undone, outstanding, or unpaid.
arrearage (ar-rer'aj), n. the state or condition of being in arrears; that which remains unpaid and overdue after a previous payment.
arreat (ar-rest'), v.t. to stop or stay; check or hinder the action or motion of; seize, take, or apprehend by legal authority; seize and fix, as the eye or attention: n. the act of seizing; stoppage or holding back by force or restraint; the state of being seized or detained by legal authority.
arriere-ban (ar-ri-yar'ban), n. the reserve of the French National Guard.
arris (ar'is), n. the line or edge in which two curved or straight surfaces of a body, forming an exterior angle, meet each other.
arris-wise (ar'is-wiz), adv. diagonally laid, like tiles; ridge-wise.
arrival (ar-ri'val), n. the act of coming to a place, or reaching a destination from a distance; attainment to any object; the person or thing arriving, or which has arrived.
arrive (ar-rlv'), v.i. to come to or reach, as a destination; reach a point or stage; gain or compass an object; attain to a state or result [with at].
arrogance (ar'ro-gans), n. an undue degree of self-importance; an exorbitant claim to dignity, rank, or esteem; a lordly contempt of others.
arrogant (ar'ro-gant), ad/, making exorbitant claims to dignity or esteem, by presuming upon one's self-importance; overbearingly haughty.
arrogate (ar'ro-gat), v.t. to assume or lay claim to unduly, or with presumptuous pride.
arrogatlon (ar-ro-ga'shun), n. the act of arrogating.
arrow (ar'ro), n. a slender, pointed missile weapon, usually feathered and barbed, and made to be shot from a bow.
ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mil; note, north, not; boon, book; 54
arrow characters (kar'ak-ters), n.pl. the arrow-headed (cuneiform or wedge-shaped) characters of the Assyrian inscriptions.
arrow-head (ar'ro-hed), n. the head or barb of an arrow; an aquatic plant so named from_its_ leaves.
arrowroot (ar'ro-root), n. a starch obtained from the rootstocks of several species of West Indian plants.
arrow-wood (ar'ro-wood), n. a wood of which the arrows of the Red Indians are made.
arroyo (a-roi'o), n. [pi. arroyos (a-roi'- oz)l, a watercourse or rivulet; the dry bed of a small stream. [Spanish.]
arsenal (ar'se-nal), n. a magazine for the storage of arms and military stores for land or naval service, or their manufacture.
argenlo (ar'se-nik), n. an element of steel-gray color and brilliant luster, and exceedingly brittle, occurring usually in combination.
arsenic (iir-sen'ik) or arsenical ('i-kal), adj. pertaining to or containing arsenic.
arsenlous (ar-se'ni-us), adj. pertaining to or containing arsenic.
arsenite (ar'sen-It), n. a salt of arseni- ous acid.
arsis (ar'sis), n. that part of a foot upon which the metrical accent is now placed. Formerly it was defined in exactly the opposite way. (See thesis.)
arson (ar'sn), n. the malicious firing of any building, agricultural produce, ship, &c., belonging to another, or one's own property, with the intent to defraud an insurance office.
art (art), 2nd pers. sing, indie, mood, pres. tense, of the verb to be. [Art is used only in solemn or poetic style.] (Sec be.)
art (art), n. the employment of means to the accomplishment of some end; the skilful adaptation and application to some purpose or use of knowledge or power acquired from Nature; a system of rules and established methods to facilitate the performance of certain actions; familiarity with such principles, and skill in applying them to an end or purpose, as of a practical, useful, or technical character: opposed to science; one of the fine arts; the fine
arts collectively; the power or quality of perceiving and transcribing the beautiful or Eesthetical in Nature, as in painting or sculpture; practical skill; dexterity; knack; cunning; artifice: pi. the branches of learning included in the prescribed course of academic study.
arterial (iir-ter'i-al), adj. pertaining to an artery or the arteries; contained in an artery.
arterlallzatlon (ar-ter-i-al-i-za'shun), n. the process of converting venous blood into arterial blood.
arterlalize (iir-ter'i-al-lz), v.t. to convert as venous blood into arterial blood by exposure to oxygen in the lungs.
arteriology (iir-te-ri-ol'o-ji), n. that branch of anatomy which treats of the arteries.
arterlqtomy (ar-ter-i-ot'o-mi), n. the opening of an artery; the part of anatomy treating of the dissection of the arteries.
artery (ar'ter-i), n. [pi. arteries (ar'- ter-iz)], one of a system of tubes or vessels which convey the blood from the heart to all parts of the body.
artesian well (ar-te'zhan wel), n. a well formed by boring, often to great depth, through strata the nature and arrangement of which permit of the permeation and accumulation of water; on being freed from constraint, the water rises by pressure in the tube and overflows at the surface.
artful (art'fool), adj. cunning; skilful.
artfully (art'fool-li), adv. in a cunning or skilful manner.
arthritis (ar-tlm'tis), n. any inflammation of the joints; the gout.
artichoke (ar'ti-chok), n. a plant with thistle-like foliage, and bearing large terminal flower-heads, the lower portion of which, consisting of a fleshy receptacle covered with thick scales, is used as food; the tuberous root of an American sunflower (Hdianlhus luberosis), used as a substitute for potatoes.
article (ar'ti-kl), n. a distinct portion or member; a single clause, item, or particular, as in a formal agreement or treaty; a concise statement; a prose composition, complete, in itself.