Wednesday, May 20, 2009

assortment - attenuant




v.i. to agree; suit; be in accordance with.

assortment (as-sort'ment), n. the act of assorting or placing out; a classified collection of articles or goods of a varied character.

assuade (as-swad'), v.t. to present, as advice; urge persuasively.

assuage (as-swaj'), t'-t. to soften; mitigate, allay, lessen, satisfy, or appease.

assuagement (as-swaj'ment), n. mitigation; a lenitive application or medicine.

assume (as-sum'), v.t. to take to; take in or into; take upon one's self; arrogate or appropriate; take for granted; take in appearance; pretend to possess: v.i. to be arrogant; presume; claim more than is one's due; give a legal undertaking; pretend; usurp.

assumpslt (as-sump'sit), n. a verbal or unsealed contract based on a consideration; an action to enforce such a contract. [Latin.]

assumption (as-sump'shun), n. the act of assuming or taking to or upon one's self; taking for granted; the thing supposed; a postulate; the taking up of a person to heaven; a verbal or unsealed contract.

assumptive (as-sump'tiv), adj. assumed, or capable of assumption.

assurable (a-shur'a-bl), adj. capable of being assured or insured.

assurance (a-shur'ans), n. the act of assuring; an earnest or testimony intended or tending to elicit or inspire confidence; certain expectation ; confidence; self-possession; self- reliance; impudence; a deed or other legal evidence of a conveyance of property; a security or contract to make good a loss, or pay over a sum at death or at some determined age.

assure (a-shur'), v.t. to make sure or certain; to inspire confidence by declaration or promise; secure to another; insure, or covenant for indemnity in event of loss or death.

assured (a-shurd'), p.adj. made certain; guaranteed; self-possessed; insured: n. a person insured.

assuredly (a-shur'ed-li), adv. certainly; with assurance.

assuredness (a-shur'ed-nes), n. certainty; full confidence.

assurer (a-shur'er), n. one who assures.

Assyrian (as-sir'i-an), adj. pertaining to Assyria or to its inhabitants.

Assyrlology (as-sir-i-ol'o-ji), n. the science or study of the language and antiquities of Assyria.

astatic (a-stat'ik), adj. without polarity.

astatically (a-stat'i-ka-li), adv. in an astatic manner.

astaticism (a-stat'i-sizm), n. the state of being astatic.

astay (a-sta'), adv. said of an anchor when, on heaving it, the cable makes an acute angle with the level of the water.

Aster (as'ter), n. a genus of flowering- plants with rosette-shaped flowers, to which the Michaelmas-daisy belongs.

aster, n. any plant of the genus Aster.

asterlal (as-te'ri-al), adj. connected with, or related tp,_the stars.

asteriatcd (as-te'ri-a-ted), adj. radiated; having the form of a star.

asterisk (as'ter-isk), n. the mark (*) used in printing as a reference to a marginal passage or footnote appended to the text, or to indicate letters or words omitted (***): v.t. to mark with an asterisk.

asterism (as'ter-izm), n. a group or cluster of stars; three asterisks placed in the form of a triangle [« *» or ** *] to direct attention to a particular passage; the star-like appearance in certain crystals.

astern (a-stern'), adj. & adv. at or toward the hinder part of a ship; behind a ship.

asternal (a-ster'nal), adj. not joined to the sternum or breastbone: said of ribs.

asteroid (as't6r-oid), adj. star-like; star-shaped: n. one of the small planets whose orbits lie between those of Mars and Jupiter; a minor planet.

asthenia (as-the'ni-a), n. debility.

asthenlo (as-then'ik), adj. pertaining to, or characterized by, asthenia; feeble.

asthma (ast'ma & as'ma), n. a respiratory disease, chronically recurrent ASTHMATIC

ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mil; note, nOrth, not; boon, book; 61


and attended by difficulty of breathing, with a wheezing cough and a sense of great constriction in the chest.

asthmatic (as-mat'ik) or asthmat- Ical (as-mat'i-kal), adj. pertaining to asthma; affected by asthma: n. a person suffering from the disease.

asthmatlcally (as-mat'i-ka-li), adv. in an asthmatical manner.

astigmatic (as-tig-mat'ik), adj. pertaining to, affected with, or curing astigmatism.

astigmatism (as-tig'ma-tizm), n. a defect in the structure of the eye causing variation of the focus of the crystalline lens.

astir (a-ster'), adv. or adj. on the move; active; stirring.

astomatous (as-tom'a-tus) or asto- mous (as'to-mus), adj. destitute of a mouth; without breathing pores.

astonish (as-ton'ish), v.t. to strike with sudden wonder; surprise; amaze.

astonishment (as-ton'ish-ment), n. the state of being astonished; amazement.

astound (as-tound'), v.t. to strike with amazement; shock; alarm; stun.

astraddle (a-stradl), adv. with one leg on each side of something; astride.

astragal (as'tra-gal), n. a small molding or bead of semicircular form: called also a roundel; the astragalus; the circular molding near the mouth of a cannon.

astragalus (as-trag'al-us), n. [pi. astragali (as-trag'a-li)], the ball of the ankle-joint; the lower bone into which the tibia articulates.

astrakhan (as'tra-kan), n. the skins of young lambs with curly wool, obtained from Astrakhan, a district in Russia; an imitation with a pile resembling this wool or fur.

astral (aw'tral), adj. pertaining to the stars; starry; star-shaped; pertaining to a super-sensible substance presumed by occulists to pervade the regions of space and to enter into the composition of all bodies. astral body (bod'i). n. a kind of ethereal body said by the occultists to be capable of projection to a distance, and to possess the power of

occupying two places at the same instant; a ghost or double.

astral lamp (lamp), n. a lamp similar to an Argand lamp, giving an uninterrupted light.

astral spirits (spir'itz), spirits formerly supposed to inhabit the stars, and represented as fallen angels or spirits of fire.

astray (a-stra'), adv. out of the right way; wandering.

astride (a-strid'), adv. with the legs wide apart; astraddle.

astringency (as-trin'jen-si), n. the quality of being astringent; harshness; severity.

astringent (as-trin'Jent), adj. binding; contracting, opposed to laxative: u. a substance or medicine that produces contraction of the tissues and checks discharges.

astrolabe (as'tro-lab), n. an instrument formerly employed for taking the altitude of the sun or stars; a etereographic projection of the sphere on the plane of the equator or a meridian.

astrologer (as-trol'6-jer), n. one who professes to forecast events by means of the stars.

astrological (as-tro-loj'i-kal), adj. pertaining to astrology, or the practice of astrology.

astrologically (as-tro-loj'i-ka-li), adv. in an astrological manner; according to astrology.

astrology (as-trol'6-ji), n. predestination by the stars; the art anciently pursued of foretelling or forecasting the future of mankind, by reference to the influence supposed to be exerted by the stars in their various aspects and relative positions upon the course of human destiny. [Greek.]

astrometer (aa-trom'e-tSr), n. an instrument for ascertaining and comparing the relative magnitude and luster of the stars.

astronomer (as-tron'o-mer), n. one who studies, or is versed in, astronomy.

Astronomer Royal (roi'al), n. the official title of the astronomer in charge of a royal observatory in Great Britain and other parts of the British Empire.

astronomic (as-tro-nom'ik) or astroASTRONOMICAL

Si te, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, book ; 62


nomlcal (as-tro-nom'i-kal), adj. pertaining to astronomy, or according to astronomical laws.

astronomical clock (klok), n. a clock which keeps sidereal time.

astronomical signs (sinz), ;/./)'. the signs of the zodiac.

astronomical year (yer), n. a year the length of which is determined by astronomical observations.

astronomically (as-tro-nom'i-ka-li), adv. in an astronomical manner.

astronomy (as-tron'6-mi), n. the study of the heavenly bodies; the science which treats of their magnitude, motions, relative positions, and all connective phenomena.

astrophotography (as-t ro-f 6-tog'ra- fi), n. photography applied to the delineation of the heavenly bodies.

astrophotometer (as-tro-fo-tom'e- tcr), n. an instrument for measuring the intensity of the light of stars.

astrophysical (as-tro-fiz'i-kal), adj. pertaining to the physical structure of the stars.

astute (as-tuf), adj. shrewd; keenly penetrating; sagacious; cunning; crafty.

asunder (a-sun'der), adv. apart; separately; into parts.

as wail (as'wal), n. the sloth-bear of India.

asylum (a-si'lum), n. \pl. asylums (a-sl'lumz)j, a sanctuary or place of refuge wherein formerly criminals and debtors might find immunity from arrest; an institution for the care or relief of the aged, destitute, or afflicted.

asymmetrical (a-si-mct'ri-kal), adj. not symmetrical; disproportionate.

asymmetrically (a-si-met'ri-ka-li), adv. not symmetrical.

asymmetry (a-sim'e-tri), n. lack of symmetry or proportion between the parts of a thing.

asyndeton (a-sin'de-ton), n. a figure of speech which omits connectives, as "I came, I saw, I conquered." The same as parataxis.

atavism (at'a-vizm), n. the reversion, or tendency to revert, to the ancestral type of a species; resemblance to a remote ancestor, exhibited by a certain organism; the recurrence of any peculiarity or disease from

which an ancestor in remote generations has suffered.

atavistic (at-a-vis'tik), adj. of, or pertaining to, atavism.

ataxia (a-tak'si-a), n. irregularities in the functions of the body or in the course of a disease.

ataxiagraph (a-taks'i-a-graf), n. an instrument for recording by curves and lines the irregularities caused by ataxia.

ataxlc (a-tak'sik), adj. pertaining to, or characterized by, ataxia.

ataxlc fever (fe'verj, n. typhus fever of a malignant type.

ate (at), p.t. of cat.

atelier (a-tel-ya'), n. a workshop; the studio of a painter or sculptor. [French.]

atheism (a'the-izm), n. disbelief in the existence of a God.

atheist (a'the-ist), n. one who disbelieves or denies the existence of a God. [Greek.]

atheistic (a-the-is'tik), adj. pertaining to. containing, or implying atheism.

atheistically (a-thc-is'ti-ka-li), adv. in an atheistic manner; impiously.

Athene (a-the'ne), n. a Greek goddess corresponding to the Roman Minerva.

atheneum, athenaeum (ath-e-ne'- um), n. [pi. atheneums (ath-e-ne'- umz) & atnenxa (ath-e-ne'a)], an institution, club, or building devoted to the purposes or study of literature, science and art.

athermanous (a-ther'ma-nus), adj. impervious to radiant heat.

athlrst (a-therst'), adj. thirsty; in want of drink.

athlete (ath'lct), n. a competitor for a prize in public games; one trained to contend in feats of physical prowess; one possessed of great physical strength. [Greek.]

athletic (ath-let'ik), adj. pertaining to athletes, or their performances; strong; robust; vigorous; muscular.

athletically (ath-let i-ka-li), adv. in an athletic manner.

athleticism (ath-let'i-sizm), n. the practice of athlet ic games or exercises.

athletics (ath-let'iks), n. any system of athletic training by gymnastic exercises or outdoor sports; athletic exercises collectively.

ate, arm, at. awl; ine, merge, met; mite, rait: note, nOrth, not; boon, book; 63



athwart (a-thwawrt'), prep, across; from side to side: adv. crosswise; obliquely; across the course or direction of a ship.

athwart-ships (a-thwawrt'ships), adv. phr. across a ship from one side to the other.

atllt (a-tilt'), adv. & adj. in the position or with the action of a person making a thrust; tilted.

Atlantes (afr-lan'tez), figures or half-figures of men, used in place of columns or pilasters to support an entablature.

atlas (at'las), n. [pi. atlases (atlas-cz)], a collection of maps in a volume; a work in tabulated form; a large size of drawing-paper.

atlas-powder (at'las-pou'der), n. a powerful nitro-glycerine blasting compound.

atmldometer (at-mi-dom'e-ter), n. an instrument for measuring the evaporation from ice, snow, or water. [Greek.]

atmology (at-mol'6-ji), n. the science of aqueous vapor, its laws and phenomena.

atmometer (at-mom'e-ter), n. an instrument for measuring the rate and amount of evaporation from a moist surface.

atmosphere (at'mos-fer), n. the aeriform fluid surrounding the earth, composed of a mechanical mixture of 79 parts by volume of nitrogen with 21 parts of oxygen, and a trace of carbonic acid and argon, with a varying proportion of aqueous vapor, ammonia, ozone, and organic matter; the gaseous envelope surrounding any of the heavenly bodies; the influence, mental and moral, exerted on a person by his environment. [Greek.]

atmospheric (at-mos-fer'ik) or atmospherical (at-mos-fcr'i-kal), adj. pertaining to, resembling, or consisting of, existing in, or dependent upon, the atmosphere.

atmospheric pressure (prcsh'er), n. the pressure exerted in every direction upon a body by the atmosphere; equivalent to 14| Ib. on the sq. in., or 1,033 grams on the sq. centimeter. atoll (a-tol'), n. a coral island having

the form of an outer ring of coral surrounding a basin or lagoon.

atom (at'um), n. an ultimate indivisible particle of matter. [Greek.]

atomic (a-tom'ik) or atomlcal (a-tqm'i-kal), adj. pertaining to, or consisting of, atoms; extremely minute.

atomic weight (wat), n. the weight of the atom of any element as compared with another taken as a standard, usually hydrogen, taken as 1.

atomleally (a-tom'i-ka-li), adv. in an atomic manner.

atomicity (at-o-mis'i-ti), n. equivalence; the combining capacity of an element.

atomist (at'um-ist), n. one who believes that the world was composed and first came into existence from the downfall and swerve of innumerable atoms.

atomize (at'um-iz), v.t. to reduce to atoms or exceedingly fine particles.

atomizer (at'um-I-zer), n. an instrument constructed to reduce a liquid to spray.

atonable (a-ton'a-bl), adj. capable of being atoned for.

atone (a-ton'), v.i. [p.t. & p.p. atoned, atoning], to make reparation or amends, as for injury done or implied; expiate; make satisfaction for; reconcile.

atonement (a-ton'ment), n. reparation or satisfaction offered or made in return for injury; expiation of wrong or sin by suffering; the recompense for sin typified by the sufferings and death of Christ; reconciliation.

atonic (a-ton'ik), adj. wanting tone, or vital energy; unaccented: n. an unaccented word or syllable; a medicine to allay excitement.

atony (at'o-ni), n. want of tone; debility; weakness of any organ.

atrip (a-trip'), adv. just clear of the ground.

atrium (a'tri-um), n. [pi. atria (a'- tria)], the square entrance-hall, lighted from above, constituting the chief apartment in an ancient Roman nouse; a hall or entrance- court; the auricular portion of the heart. [Latin.]

ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nOrth, not; boon, book;




atrocious (a-tro'shus), adj. wicked in the highest degree; extremely criminal or cruel; outrageous; exhibiting great atrocity; flagrant.

atrocity (a-tros'i-ti), n. [pi. atrocities (a-tros'i-tiz)], enormous wickedness; abominable cruelty; an atrocious deed.

atrophy (at'ro-fi), n. a wasting, or diminution in bulk, of the body, or any part of the body arising from lack of nourishment; the degeneration of an organ or part: v.i. [p.t. & p.p. atrophied, atrophying], to waste away; to dwindle.

atropln (at'ro-pin) or atropine (-pin), n. a crystalline alkaloia of a very poisonous nature extracted from the deadly nightshade (belladonna), having the property of producing a pronounced dilatation of the pupil of the eye.

atropism (at'ro-pizm), n. poisoning by atropine or belladonna.

attach (at-tach'), v.t. to fasten, or fix, to or on; bind; connect with or appoint to; connect by ties of affection; to take, or seize, by legal authority: v.i. to adhere.

attachi' (at-ta-sha'), n. one who ia attached to another; or, as part of a suite or staff, to an embassy or legation. [French.]

attachment (at-tach'ment), n. the act of attaching; adherence; fidelity; affection or regard; that which at- taches, or the thing which is attached; a taking into custody or seizure of the person, goods, or estate by virtue of a legal process.

attack (at-tak'), v.t. to assault; fall upon with force; assail with intent to overcome or to damage, discredit, or bring into ridicule; begin to affect or act upon, as disease: v.i. to make an onset or attack: n. the act of attacking in any sense of the word.

attain (at-tan'), v.t. to achieve; gain; compass; accomplish: v.i. to reach; come, or arrive at.

attainable (at-ta'na-bl), adj. capable of being attained.

attainableness (at-ta'na-bl-nes), n. the quality of being attainable.

attainder (at-tan'der), n. the act of attainting, or the state of being attainted; an act, formerly in opera

tion, for the deprivation of all civil rights and of power to inherit or transmit property: applied to persons under sentence of death or outlawry for treason or felony.

attainment (at-tan'ment), n. the act of attaining; the act of arriving at or reaching, as the result of exertion or effort; that which is attained; an acquisition.

attaint (at-tanf), v.t. to taint; corrupt ; sully or stain by disgrace.

attar of roses (at'ar of roz'ez), n. an essential oil expressed from the petals of the rose. Written also atar, ottar, and otto.

attemper (at-tem'per), v.t. to reduce, modify, or moderate by mixture; regulate; temper; smooth, soften, or mollify; mix in proper proportion; fit or adapt.

attempt (at-tempt'), v-t. to make an effort to accomplish; try; endeavor or essay to perform; try to win or seduce; attack, or invade: n. a trial, essay, or endeavor; an effort to gain a point; an attack or assault.

attend (at-tend'). v.t. [p.l. & p.p. -ed, -ing], to wait upon; accompany or be present wi th; serve or look after in any capacity; be present at; accompany or ... v.i. to pay heed or regard to; listen; be in attendance upon.

attendance (at-ten'dans), n. the act of attending; waiting on; presence; the persons attending; retinue.

attendant (at-ten'dant), n. one who attends or accompanies in service or train of another; one who is present; that which attends or is consequent upon anything else: adj. accompanying; being present; connected or consequent upon; depending on or owing duty or service to.

attention (at-ten'shun), n. the act of applying the mind to anything; consideration or regard for any person or thing; a mark or act of civility or courtesy; care for the comfort of others; an officer's command to assume the attitude of attention.

attentive (at-ten'tiv), adj. heedful; full of attention; intent; mindful; regardful of the wishes of others.

attenuant (at-ten'u-ant), "(/. mak-

articular - assort




in a newspaper, magazine, or work of reference; a material tiling, as one of a class; an item; a point of duty, faith, or doctrine; one of the words (an (a before consonant-sounds], the indefinite article, and the, the definite article [see a, an, & the]) used before nouns or substantives to define or limit their application; a jointed segment connecting two parts of a limb or body: v.l. to bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; specify.

articular (ar-tik'u-lar), adj. pertaining to the joints or to a joint.

articulate (ar-tik'u-lat), t>.(. to joint; unite by means of a joint; to form words; utter in distinct syllables; speak as a human being: v.i. to unite or form an articulation (with); utter articulate sounds; speak with distinctness: adj. jointed; formed with joints; segmented; characterized by- syllabic division; uttered with distinctness.

articulation (ar-tik-u-la'shun), n. the act of jointing; the act of speaking distinctly; a distinct utterance; the state of being articulated; a joint or juncture between bones; the point of separation of organs or parts of a plant; a node or joint of the stem, or the space between two nodes.

artioulator (ar-tik'u-la-ter), n. one who pronounces distinctly; an instrument to cure stammering; an apparatus attached to a telephone to secure regularity of tone; one who mounts skeletons.

artifice (ar'ti-fis), n. an artful or crafty device; an ingenious expedient; a trick or stratagem: a manoeuvre.

artificer (ar-tifi-ser), n. a skilled or artistic worker; a mechanic; a maker or constructor; an inventor.

artificial (ar-ti-fish'al), adj. made or contrived by art; produced by human skill or labor; feigned; unreal; assumed; affected; not genuine or natural.

artificiality (ar-ti-fish-i-al'i-ti), n. the quality of being unreal or unnatural; that which is artificial.

artificially (ar-ti-fish'a-li), adv. by human skill or contrivance.

artillery (ar-til'Ier-i), n. cannon; great guns; ordnance of all kinds, with its

equipment of carriages, men, and material; the officers and men forming the artillery division of an army; the science which treats of the use or management of ordnance.

artisan (ar'ti-zan), n. one skilled in any art or trade; a mechanic; a handicraftsman.

artist (ar'tist), one skilled in any branch of high art, as music, painting, sculpture, poetry, &c.

artiste (iir-test'), n. one who is an expert in any branch of professional art other than the fine arts, as a public singer, cook, &c. [French.]

artistic (iir-tis'tik), adj. pertaining to art or to artists; characterized by Esthetic feeling or conformity to the principles of a school of art.

artistically (iir-tis'ti-ka-li), adv. in a manner conformable to the rules and principles of art.

artistry (ar'tis-tri), n. the quality of an artist.

artless (artles), adj. lacking art; unskilful; devoid of cunning; simple; natural; undesigning; unaffected; ingenuous.

Aryan (ar'yan), adj. pertaining to the Aryans (i.e. the Indo-Europeans), or to their languages. (See Introduction, part ii.)

as (az), conjunct.adv. proportionate to; comparable to; like.

as (as), n. [pi. asses (as'sez)], a Roman weight equivalent to the libra or pound.

asafetlda or asafoetlda (as-a-fet'i-da), n. a fetid sap of an onion-like odor obtained from the roots of several large umbelliferous plants of Persia and Afghanistan, and used by the natives of those countries to season their food.

asbestos (as-bcs'tos) or asbestus Ctus), n. a fibrous variety of hornblende, separable into flexible filaments and flax-like appearance and silky luster, and possessing the property of being incombustible.

ascend (as-scnd'), v.i. to take an upward direction; mount; go up; rise; to proceed from an inferior to a superior; rise from a lower to a higher pitch or tone: v.t. to go or move upward upon; climb; go upward along.

4te, ftrm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, book; 66



ascendable (as-sen'da-bl) or ascen- dible (as-sen'di-bl), adj. capable of being climbed or navigated.

ascendancy (as-sen'dan-si) or ascendency (as-sen'den-si), n. a governing or controlling power or influence; domination.

ascendant (as-sen'dant) or ascendent (as-scn'dent), adj. rising; superior; predominant; above the horizon: n. superiority or commanding influence; predominance; an ancestor, or one who precedes in genealogy or degrees of kindred; opposed to descendant; the particular zodiacal sign appearing above the horizon at the time of one's birth.

ascension (as-sen'shun), n. the act of moving upward; a rising; the ascent of our Lord to heaven; the rising of a star or point above the celestial horizon.

Ascension Day (da), n. a movable feast to commemorate Christ's ascension into heaven, celebrated on the Thursday next but one before Whit-Sunday: also called Holy Thursday.

ascent (as-sent'), n. the act of rising; an upward movement; the act of climbing; the way or means of reaching a height; an acclivity; an upward slope.

ascertain (as-ser-tan'), v.l. to make certain; find out or determine definitely by test or examination.

ascertainment (as-ser-tan'mcnt), n. the act of ascertaining.

ascetic (as-set'ik), adj. exceedingly rigid in the exercise of religious duties and mortification of worldly desires: n. one who renounces the world and devotes himself to religious exercises; one who subjects nimself to severe disciplinary methods of living; a hermit; a recluse.

ascetically (as-set 1-ka-li), adv. in an ascetical manner.

asceticism (as-set'i-sizm), n. the condition or mode of life adopted by one who renounces worldly matters; austerity.

ascribable (a-skri'ba-bl). adj. capable of being attributed or imputed.

ascribe (a-skrlb'), v.t. to attribute, impute, or refer; assign; attribute.

ascription (a-skrip'shun), n. the act

of attributing or imputing; that which is assigned.

aseptic (a-sep'tik), adj. free from the germs of disease or putrefaction; not liable to putrefy: an aseptic substance.

asexual (a-seks'u-al), adj. not sexual; produced by other than sexual processes.

asexually (a-seks'u-a-li), adv. in a manner other than by conjunction of the sexes: applied to reproduction.

ash (ash), n. the name popularly applied to trees of the genus Fraxinus, many of which supply valuable timber; the wood of the ash-tree: adj. pertaining to, or like, the ash; made of ash.

ash (ash), n. [pi. ashes (ash'ez)], the residue of plant or animal substance remaining after subjection to red- heat: pi. the waste of burned coal; the remains of a human body when cremated; hence a corpse.

ashamed (a-shiimd'), p.adj. affected or touched by shame; cast down or dejected by conscious guilt; abashed by a sense of indecorum; reluctant through fear of shame [followed by an infinitive].

ashen (ash'n), adj. pertaining to the ash-tree; made of ash; of the color of ashes; pale.

ashore (a-shor'). adv. on shore; to the shore; on land.

aside (a-sid'), adv. on or to one side; out of a given direction; apart; away from: n. a speech or utterance not intended for the present company; a remark made by an actor on the stage, and assumed to be heard only by the person for whom it is intended.

asinine (as'irnln), adj. pertaining to the ass; having the nature or characteristics of an ass.

aslninity (as-i-nin'i-ti), n. the quality of being asinine; obstinate stupidity.

ask (ask), v.l. to request; seek to obtain by words; petition or beg for; claim or demand; expect or require; inquire respecting; interrogate; invite: v.i. to prefer by request; inquire after.

askance (a-skans') or askant (a- skant'), adv. sideways; obliquely; awry; from the corner of the eye; aslant.

flte, arm, at, awl; me, merge, mot: mitp. mil; note, north, not; boon, book; 57



askew (a-sku'), adv. obliquely; awry; out of position or arrangement.

aslant (a-slant'), adi\ not at right angles; sloping; oblique; slanting- athwart.

asleep (a-slep'), adj. & adv. sleeping; in a state of slumber; dormant.

aslope (a-slop'), adv. in a sloping direction.

asoak (a-sok'), adv. in a state of saturation or soaked with moisture.

asp (asp), n. a small venomous snake of Egypt; the common viper, or adder, of Europe; a royal symbol of ancient Egypt.

asparagus (as-par'a-gus), n. a plant having tender edible shoots.

aspect (as'peckt), n. visual or mental appearance; look; mien; air; outlook or prospect; the relative position of the planets as viewed from the earth; appearance.

aspen (as'pen), n. a species of poplar whose leaves have the property of trembling in the slightest breeze; adj. pertaining to the asp-tree; quivering like an aspen-leaf.

asper (as'per), adj. rugged; hard; warlike: n. the mark () in Greek, to indicate the rough breathing, or aspirate sounded like an h.

asperity (as-per'i-ti), n. [pi. asperities (as-per'i-tiz)], roughness of surface; roughness or harshness of sound; sourness; bitterness of taste or temper.

aspnrmous (a-sper'mus), adj. without seed; not producing seed.

asperse (as-pers'), v.t. to besprinkle; injure in reputation by calumny; slander.

aspersion (as-per'shun), n. a sprinkling as of dust or water; injury by false and caluminous charges or reports; slander.

asphalt (as'falt), n. a compact, brittle variety of native bitumen, employed for the purpose of paving, roofing, and cementing: v.t. to lay or cover with asphalt.

asphalt ic (as-fal'tik), adj. of the nature of, composed of, or containing asphalt.

asphodel (as'fo-del), n. the name of several plants of the liliaceous genus Asphodelus; the daffodil of the older English poets; the unfading plant of

the dead, which covered the meadows of Hades.

asphyxia (as-fik'si-a).n. the condition of fifclessness occasioned by suspension or interruption of respiration.

aspic (as'pik), n. a venomous asp; the plant known as the great lavender; a side-dish composed of game, fish, &c., encased in clear savory meat-jelly.

aspirant (as-pi'rant), adj. aspiring; ambitious: n. one who seeks to attain, or aspires to, a high object.

aspirate (as pi-rat), v.t. to pronounce with a full breathing; to prefix the sound of the letter h: n. the sound of the letter h, as in horse; the mark or sign used to denote the sound: adj. pronounced with the audible breath.

aspirates (as'pi-ratz), n. in English, the rough mutes, those letters which have an h associated with them, as p, t, c, making ph, ih, ch.

aspiration (as-pi-ra'shun), n. the act of aspirating; an aspirated sound; a breath; the yearning desire for something higher or better than that already possessed; ambition.

aspiratory (as-pi'ra-to-ri), adj. pertaining to breathing; suited to the inhaling of air.

aspire (as-plr'), v.i. to seek after or desire with longing; yearn for that which is better or nobler; rise or ascend; to soar: v.t. to breathe to, or into; breathe forth; soar to.

asquint (a-skwint'), adv. with a squint; to or out of the corner of the eye; obliquely.

ass (as), ?i. a quadruped of the genus Equis, allied to the horse, usually employed in its domesticated state as a beast of burden; a dull, stupid fellow.

assafoetida. See asafetida.

assail (as-sal'), v.t. to fall upon or attack with vehemence; attack with argument or abuse.

assailant (as-sa'lant), adj. assaulting; attacking: n. one who, or that which, assails.

assassin (as-sas'sin), n. one who slays treacherously or by covert assault; one who kills, or attempts to kill, secretly as the agent of another or others, or for reward; formerly one ASSASSINATE

ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit: note, north, not; boon, book;



of a band of Syrian fanatics (hash- hashin), who committed murder at the command of their chief, in the hope of winning heaven.

assassinate (as-sas'si-nat), >\i. to kill, or attempt to kill, by secret or treacherous means; slay suddenly or unawares; murder.

assassination (as-sas-i-na'shun), n. the act of slaying in secret, or at the bidding or reward of others; murder.

assault (as-sawlt'), n. an attack with violence by physical means; an onslaught; an attack by military force; a violent attack by moral force; an attempt or threat to do bodily violence or injury to another; the charge of an attacking party on a fortified position: v.t. to attack violently; storm, as by armed force; attack by moral force; attack a fortified position by a sudden charge.

assay (as-sa'), n. the act or process of determining by analysis trie quantity or proportion of any one or more metals in a metallic compound, ore, or alloy, especially the standard purity of gold or silver coin or bullion; the substance or metal to be assayed: v.t. [p.t. &, p.p. -?,&, -ing], to subject to analysis; to determine the quantity or proportion of one or more of the constituents of a metal,

assayer (as-sa'5r), n. one who assays; an officer of the U. S. Mint appointed to test the purity of bullion and coin.

assemblage (as-sem'blaj), n. the act of assembling; the state of being assembled; a group or collection of persons or particular things.

assemble (as-sem'bl), v.t. to collect or gather together in one place or body; congregate: v.i. to meet or come together; convene.

assembly (as-sem'bli), n. \nl. assemblies (as-sem'bliz)], a collection or company of persons brought together in one place, and for a common object; a nifting; a congregation.

assemblyniiii> (as-sem'bli-man), n. a member of a legislative assembly.

assent (as-sent'), e.i. to admit as true: concede; agree to; consent: n. the act of agreeing to: consent: acquiescence; approval; concurrence.

assentation (as-sen-ta'shun), n. com

pliance with the opinion of another, in flattery or obsequiousness.

assentlent (as-sen'shi-ent), adj. assenting: n. one who assents.

assert (as-sert'), v.t. to maintain; declare positively, or with assurance; aver; affirm; defend or vindicate; declare.

assertion (as-ser'shun), n. the act of asserting; that which is asserted; positive declaration; allegation; maintenance or defense.

assertive (as-s6r'tiv), adj. positive; dogmatical; confident in assertion.

assertor (as-ser'ter), n. one who asserts; one who maintains or defends.

assertory (as-ser'to-ri), adj. affirming; supporting.

assess (as-ses'), v.t. to fix or determine, as damages; fix, rate, or set a certain charge upon, as a tax; estimate or value officially for the purpose of taxation.

assessed taxes (as-sest' taks'ez), taxes levied on income, houses, and property.

assessment (as-ses'ment), n. the act of assessing or determining an amount to be paid; an official valuation of property, or income, for the purpose of taxation; the specific sum levied as tax, or assessed for damages.

assessor (as-ses'er), n. one appointed to assess property or persons for taxation.

assessorial (as-ses-so'ri-al), adj. pertaining to an assessor.

assets (as'sets), the property, whether real or personal, of a deceased pers9n which is subject by law to the dijchaigc of his debts and legacies: the property or effects of an niso'vent Debtor which are available for the satisfaction of his creditors; the entire property of a trader or company of tra,leis.

asseverate (as-sev'ci-ut), v.t. to affirm or aver positively, or with solemnity.

asseveration (as-sev-er-a'shun), n. a solemn affirmation or declaration, as upon oath.

assibilate (as-sib'i-lilt), v.t. to pronounce with a hissing sound; to alter another letter to a sibilant, as English out is the German aus.

assibilation (as-sib-i-la'shun), n. pronunciation with a hissing sound; the ASSIDUITY

ate, arm, at, nwl; me, merge, met; mite, mit: note, north, not; boon, book;


change of a dental or guttural mute into a sibilant or a similar sound.

assiduity (as-si-du'i-ti), n. [pi. assiduities (as-si-du'i-tiz) ], close application or unremitting attention to; diligence: pi. studied and persevering attention to pjease.

assiduous (as-sid'u-us). adj. constant in application; devotedly attentive.

assign (as-sln'), v.t. to appoint, mark out. apportion, make over; fix; designate for a specific purpose; point out exactly; to transfer or make over to another, as for the benefit of creditors : n. an appurtenance; one to whom property or interest is assigned by will or deed.

asslgnat (French a-se-nya'), n. a promissory note issued by the French Revolutionary Government (1789- 96), and secured by the public lands,

assignation (as-ig-na'shun), n. the act of assigning; an appointment to meet [used chiefly of love-meetings and in a bad sense]; the transfer of title, or the deed of transferment.

assignee (as-si-ne'), n. one to whom an assignment of anything is made, either in trust or for his own use and enjoyment.

assignment (as-sln'ment), n. a setting apart, allotment, or appointment to some particular person or use; transfer of title or interest; the deed of writing effecting such a transfer.

assignor (as-si'n6r), n. one who assigns or transfers an interest.

assimilable (as-sim'i-la-bl), adj. capable of being assimilated.

assimilate (as-sira'i-lat). v.t. to bring into conformity or agreement with something else; convert or incorporate into organic substance; absorb or appropriate, as nourishment: t'.i. to be converted into or become incorporated with the substance of the animal body.

assimilation (as-sim-i-la'shun), n. the art or process of assimilating: the rtate of being assimilated. So in English we have colatcral (con- latpral), becoming collateral by assimilation.

assimilative (as-sim'i-la-tiv), adj. having the power of assimilating, or causing assimilation.

assist (as-sist'), v.t. to help; aid; give support to; attend: ti.i. to lend help or aid.

assistance (as-sis'tans), n. help; furtherance; aid; succor; support.

assistant (as-sis'tant), adj. helping; lending aid; auxiliary: n. one who, or that which, assists; a helper; an auxiliary.

asslstful (as-sist'fool), adj. helpful.

assize (as-slz'), n. [pi. assizes (as-slz'ez)], a court or session of justice for the trial by jury of civil or criminal cases: the sessions held periodically in each county of England by judges of the High Court [usually in the pi.]; the time or place of holding the assize [usually in the pi.].

assizement (as-slz ment), n. an inspection of weights and measures, enacted by statute.

assizer or asslzor (as-si'zer), n. a juror.

associate (as-so'shi-at), v.t. to unite; join with; connect; accompany, as a companion, friend, or confederate: v.i. to unite in company; keep company; unite in action: adj. joined in interest, object, or purpose; sharing office or employment, as a colleague or partner; connected by habit, function, or sympathy: n. a companion; a confederate; an ally; one belonging to a society or institution, usually of a lower grade than a Member or Fellow.

association (as-so-shi-a'shun), n. the act of associating or state of being associated; union; conjunction; an associate body of persons formed for a common object; a society.

associative (as-so'shi-a-tiv), adj. tending to or characterized by association.

assonance (as'so-nans), n. resemblance of sound; a species of rhyme which consists in the use of the same vowel-sound in the last syllable of words having different consonants. Assonance is common in Spanish poetry in place of rhyme.

assonant (as'so-nant), adj. having resemblance of sound; pertaining to, or possessing, assonance.

assort (as-sort'), v.t. to divide or separate into lots according to arrangement; to classify; arrange:

architect - article

architect (ar'ki-tekt), n. one versed in the art of building and the various styles of architecture; one who plans



or designs buildings and superintends their construction, hence one who forms or designs.

architect! ve (ar'ki-tek-tiv), adj. used in building; proper for building.

architectonics (ar-ki-tck-ton'iks), the science of architecture.

architectural (ar-ki-tek'tu-ral), adj. pertaining to the art of building; in accordance with the rules of the building art.

architecturally (ar-ki-tek'tu-ra-li), adv. with regard to the principles of the building art; from tne designer's point of view.

architecture (ar'ki-tek-tur), n. the science or art of building; the method or style of building; construction; workmanship.

architrave (ar'ki-trav), n. the lowest division of an entablature, or thai part which rests immediately on the column.

archival (ar-ki'val), adj. pertaining to. or included in, state records.

archive (ar'kiv), n. [pi. archives (ar'- klvz)], a record preserved as evidence: pi. the place where public or state records are kept; state or public documents, or records of historical value pertaining to a nation or to a family.

archly (arch'li), adv. roguishly; waggishly; coyly.

archness (arch'nes), n. feigned shyness; coyness.

archon (ar'kon), n. a chief magistrate of ancient Athens; one of the nine chief magistrates chosen to superintend civil and religious matters.

archpztost (ilrch'prest), n. a chief Driest; a rural dean.

arci.way (arch'wa), n. an opening or passage beneath an arched or vaulted roof.

arcograph (ark'o-graf), n. an instrument for drawing nn arc without the use of a central point.

arctic (iirk'tik), adj. pertaining to the region of the north pole; polar; northern; frigid.

arctic circle (ser'kl), n. an imaginary circle parallel to the equator and distant 23° 2S' from the north pole..

ardent (iir'dent), adj. hot; burning: fiery; warm; glowing; passionate; eager; zealous; vehement.

ardent spirits (spir'itz), alcoholic beverages, as brandy, whiskey, &c.

ardor (ar'der), n. heat in a physical sense; warmth of affection or passion; eager desire; zeal.

arduous (ilr'du-us), adj. steep: hard to climb; attended with great labor or exertion; difficult.

are (iir), pres. tense pi. of the verb to be. See be.

are (ar), n. the unit of French superficial or square measure containing 100 sq. meters or 1076.44 English sq. ft.

area (a're-a), n. [vl. areas (a're-az)], any pl
arena (a-re'na), n. [pi. arenas (a-re'- naz)], the central enclosed space (usually strewn with sand) of a Roman amphitheater, in which the gladiatorial combats took place; hence the scene or field of combat or exertion of any kind.

arenaceous (ar-e-na'shus), adj. sandy; abounding in, or having the properties of, sand.

Areopagus (ar-e-op'a-gus), n. the tribunal, or Highest court, of ancient Athens, so named from its situation on the hill of Ares (Mars); hence any- high court or tribunal.

Argand lamp (ar-gand' lamp), n. a lamp having a hollow circular wick to permit the passage of air inside and outside the flame.

argent (iir'jent), n. the silver of a coat of arms, represented in drawing or engraving by a plain white surface, symbolical of purity, beauty, &c.: adj. made of, or resembling, silver; silvery white; bright like silver.

argontite (ar'jen-tit), «. sulphide of silver of a lead-grey color.

argentous (iir-jen'tus), adj. pertaining to. or containing, silver.

argil (iir'jil), n. potters' clay or earth.

argillaceous (iir-ji-la'shus), adj. of

ate, arm, at, awl; me, mgrge, met; mite, mit: note, ulrth, not; boon, book;




the nature of, or containing, clay; clayey.

argiliite (Sr'ji-lit), n. clay-slate.

argol (ar'gol), n. a crude tartar from which cream of tartar is prepared.

argon (ar'gun), n. an element associated with nitrogen, and forming one of the constituents of the air.

Argonaut (iir'go-nawt), n. a cepha- lopod commonly known as the paper- nautilus, and paper-sailor of the Mediterranean; from the myth of the Argo and its crew, who sailed under the command of Jason in search of the Golden Fleece.

argosy (ar'go-si), n. [pi. argosies (ar'go- sizjf, a large richly-freighted merchant-vessel.

argot (ar'go), n. slang; cant language. [French.]

arguable (ar'gu-a-bl), adj. capable of wring disputed or discussed.

argue (ar^gu), v.i. to show or offer reasons in support 9f, or in opposition to, a proposition, opinion, or measure; to reason, dispute, discuss; contend in debate: t'.l. to debate or discuss; prove or evince.

argument (ar'gu-ment), n. that which is advanced in support or proof with a view to persuade or convince the mind; a discussion, controversy, or debate; the subject of a discourse or writing; an abstract or summary of a book.

argumental (ar-gu-men'tal), adj. pertaining to reasoning; consisting of reasons.

argumentation (ar-gu-men-ta'shun), n. the act of argjiing; discussion.

argumentative (ar-gu-men'ta-tiv), adj. consisting of, or exhibiting, p, process of reasoning; addicted to argument; disputatious.

Argus-eyed (argus-Id), adj. watchful; vigilant; extremely observant.

aria (ar'e-a & ar'i-a), n. an air; a melody or tune for single voice with accompaniment; a solo part, in a cantata or oratorio, Ac. [Italian.]

Arlan (a'ri-an), adj., pertaining to the doctrines of the Arian sect, which held that Christ is not divine.

Arlanlsm (a'ri-an-ism), the doctrine of the Arians, who denied the divinity of Christ. From Arius, an African, who founded the sect.

arid (ar'id), adj. dry; parched up; barren.

aridity (a-rid'i-ti) or aridness (ar'id- nes), n. the state of being dry; dry- ness; want of life or interest.

arietta (ar-e-et'ta), n. a short song or ah-. [Italian.]

aright (a-rft'), adv. rightly; in a right way or form; without sin or error.

arise (a-nz'), v.i. [p.t. arose, p.p. arisen, arising], to mount up or ascend; to come into view; rise or get up; spring up; come into existence or action; originate.

aristocracy (ar-is-tok'ra-si), n. [pi. aristocracies (ar-is-tok'ra-siz)l, government by persons of the highest rank in a state; the nobility or chief persons in a state.

aristocrat (ar'is-to-krat), n. a personage of rank and noble birth; one who upholds the aristocracy or favors government by the nobles; a person who possesses traits supposed to characterize the nobility.

aristocratic (ar-is-to-krat'ik) or arls- tocratlcal (ar-is-to-krat'i-kal), adj. pertaining to, or consisting in, a government of the nobles; pertaining to, or characteristic of, the higher class or nobility. [Greek.]

aristocratically (ar-is-to-krat'i-ka-li), adv. in an aristocratic manner.

aristocratlsm (ar'is-to-krat-izm & ar-is-tok'ra-tizm), n. the rank, condition, or privileges of one of noble birth; the principles of aristocracy.

arithmetic (a-rith'me-tik), n. the science of numbers; the art of computation by figures. [Greek.]

arithmetical (ar-ith-met'i-kal), adj. of or pertaining to arithmetic.

arithmetically (ar-ith-met'i-ka-li), adv. according to the rules or methods of arithmetic.

arithmetician (a-rith-me-tish'an), n. one skilled in the science of numbers.

arithmometer (ar-ith-mom'e-ter), n. a calculating machine which performs multiplication and division. [Greek.]

ark (ark), n. the repository of the Covenant, or tables of the Law, in the Jewish Tabernacle (Exod. xxv). and subsequently placed in the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings viii); the vessel in which Noah and his family were preserved during the Deluge, ARM

f, inn, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nOrth, not; boon, book; 52


hence a place of safety or refuge; a large boat used for transporting produce on American rivers.

arm (arm), n. the limb of the human body which extends from the shoulder to the hand; the anterior or fore- limb of any vertebrate animal; any projecting or diverging organ or part of a mam body or trunk, as the tentacle of a star-fish, the branch of a tree, an inlet of the sea, &c.; might; power; support.

arm (arm), n. a weapon; a branch of the military service: ;>.(. to furnish or equip with weapons of offense or defense; fortify or provide against; furnish with an armament: v.i. to fit one's self with arms, or take to one's self means of defense.

armada (ar-ma'da), n. a fleet of armed vessels; a squadron; the Spanish fleet despatched against England in 1588, by Philip II, and destroyed by the English off the coast.

armadillo (ar-ma-dil'o). n. [pi. armadillos (ar-ma-dil'oz)], a South American quadruped, armed with a bony shell divided into belts consisting of numerous small plates, and resembling a coat of mail; an electric battery so named, worn round the body as a cure for nervous and other affections. [Spanish.]

armament (ar'ma-ment), n. a body of forces equipped for war, either military or naval; the cannon and small arms collectively of a warship or fortification; the number and weight of guns of a war-vessel.

armature (ar'ma-tur), n. armor: that which serves as a means of defense; a piece of soft iron connecting the poles of a magnet, or electro-magnet, to preserve and increase the magnetic force; iron bars or frame-work used to strengthen_a building.

arm-chair (arm'char), n. a chair furnished with supports for the elbows.

armful (arm'fool), n. as much as can be compassed by the arms.

armistice (ar'mis-tis), n. a temporary cessation of hostilities agreed upon by opposing forces; a truce.

armlet (arm'lct). n. a small arm of the sea; a metal band for the arm used for ornament or for protection.

armolre (ar-mwar'), n. a movable cupboard with doors. [French.]

armor (ar'mer), n. defensive arms; protective covering for the body in battle; the steel plating of a warship.

armor-clad (ar'mcr-klad), adj. ironclad: n. a war vessel protected by- steel plating.

armor-grating (ar'mer-gra'ting), n. a deep iron grating used to protect the boilers of ironclads from missiles during an engagement.

armor-plate (ar'mer-plat), n. a plate of iron or steel intended to be affixed to the side of a ship as part of a casing for protection against shell- fire.

armorer (ar'mor-er), n. formerly a maker of arms or armor, or one who had charge of the armor of another; the custodian of the arms of a troop or battleship.

armorial (ar-mo'ri-al), adj. pertaining to armor or to the arms or escutcheon of a family: n. a book or dictionary of heraldic devices and the names of persons entitled to use them.

armory (ar'mer-i), n. [pi. -ries. (-riz)], a place for arms or the assemblage of soldiers; a manufactory of arms.

armozeen or armozhie (ar-mo-zen'), n. a thick plain silk, generally black, used for clerical robes.

arm-pit (arm'-pit), n. the cavity beneath the shoulder: the axilla.

arms (armz), weapons of offense or defense; the military service; war as a profession; armorial bearings. So "coat-of-arms."

army (ar'mi), n. [pi. armies (ar'rniz)], a body of men trained and equipped for war, and organized in regiments, brigades, or similar divisions under proper officers; a great number or multitude; an organized body of persons engaged in moral warfare.

army-worm (ar'mi-wcrm), n. the larva of a moth which devastates grain and other crops.

arnica (iir'ni-ka), n. a genus of perennial herbs; the mountain tobacco: from the roots or flowers of a species of this herb a valuable external remedy for bruises is made.

aroma (a-ro'ma), n. [pi. aromas (a-ro'- rnaz)], the odor exhaled by plants or other substances, generally of an AROMATIC

ate, arm, at, aw]; me, merge, met; mite, rait; note, nOrth, not; boon, book ; 53


agreeable or spicy nature; perfume; fragrance.

aromatic (ar-o-mat'ik) or aromatical (ar-6-mat'i-kal), adj. giving out aroma; fragrant; spicy; odoriferous: n. a plant, herb, or drug yielding a fragrant smell.

aromatically (ar-o-mat'i-ka-li), adv. with an aromatic taste or smell.

aromatic-vinegar (ar-6-mat'ik-vin'e- gar), n. a powerful perfume composed of strong acetic acid, the essential oils of lavender, camphor, &c.

aromatous (a-ro'ma-tus), adj. full of fragrance; aromatic.

arose (a-roz'), p.t. of arise.

around (a-round'), adv. in a circle; on every side; roundabout: prep, about; on all sides; encircling; encompassing.

arousal (a-rou'zal), n. the act of awakening; the state of being awakened.

arouse (a-rouz'), v.t. to excite or stir to action; put in motion that which is at rest; awaken from sleep or a state of inactivity; stimulate; animate.

arow (a-ro'), adv. in a row; in order; successively.

arraign (a-ran'), v.t. to summon or set, as a prisoner at the bar of a court to answer to a charge; censure publicly; impeach; indict.

arraignment (a-ran'ment), n. an accusation; an impeachment.

arrange (a-ranj'), v.t. to put in proper order or sequence; classify; adjust or settle; adapt; group.

arrangement (a-ranj'ment), n. the act of putting in proper form or order; that which is ordered or disposed; the method or style of disposition; a preparatory measure; preparation; settlement; classification; adjustment; adaptation.

arrant (ar'ant), adj. notorious; unmitigated; thorough or downright (in a bad sense); shameless.

arras (ar'as), n. tapestry: hangings made of some rich figured fabric.

arrasene or arasene (ar-as-sen'), n. a kind of mixed thread of wool and silk used in raised embroidery.

array (ar-ra'), n. order; the grouping or arrangement of a body of men as drawn up for battle; an orderly

collection or series of things imposingly displayed; dress arranged on the person; apparel: v.l. [p.t. & p.p. -ed, -ing], to place or dispose in order; marshal; deck or dress.

arrayal (ar-ra'al), n. the process of arraying.

arrear (ar-rer'), n. the state of being behind-hand; that which is undone, outstanding, or unpaid.

arrearage (ar-rer'aj), n. the state or condition of being in arrears; that which remains unpaid and overdue after a previous payment.

arreat (ar-rest'), v.t. to stop or stay; check or hinder the action or motion of; seize, take, or apprehend by legal authority; seize and fix, as the eye or attention: n. the act of seizing; stoppage or holding back by force or restraint; the state of being seized or detained by legal authority.

arriere-ban (ar-ri-yar'ban), n. the reserve of the French National Guard.

arris (ar'is), n. the line or edge in which two curved or straight surfaces of a body, forming an exterior angle, meet each other.

arris-wise (ar'is-wiz), adv. diagonally laid, like tiles; ridge-wise.

arrival (ar-ri'val), n. the act of coming to a place, or reaching a destination from a distance; attainment to any object; the person or thing arriving, or which has arrived.

arrive (ar-rlv'), v.i. to come to or reach, as a destination; reach a point or stage; gain or compass an object; attain to a state or result [with at].

arrogance (ar'ro-gans), n. an undue degree of self-importance; an exorbitant claim to dignity, rank, or esteem; a lordly contempt of others.

arrogant (ar'ro-gant), ad/, making exorbitant claims to dignity or esteem, by presuming upon one's self-importance; overbearingly haughty.

arrogate (ar'ro-gat), v.t. to assume or lay claim to unduly, or with presumptuous pride.

arrogatlon (ar-ro-ga'shun), n. the act of arrogating.

arrow (ar'ro), n. a slender, pointed missile weapon, usually feathered and barbed, and made to be shot from a bow.

ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mil; note, north, not; boon, book; 54



arrow characters (kar'ak-ters), the arrow-headed (cuneiform or wedge-shaped) characters of the Assyrian inscriptions.

arrow-head (ar'ro-hed), n. the head or barb of an arrow; an aquatic plant so named from_its_ leaves.

arrowroot (ar'ro-root), n. a starch obtained from the rootstocks of several species of West Indian plants.

arrow-wood (ar'ro-wood), n. a wood of which the arrows of the Red Indians are made.

arroyo (a-roi'o), n. [pi. arroyos (a-roi'- oz)l, a watercourse or rivulet; the dry bed of a small stream. [Spanish.]

arsenal (ar'se-nal), n. a magazine for the storage of arms and military stores for land or naval service, or their manufacture.

argenlo (ar'se-nik), n. an element of steel-gray color and brilliant luster, and exceedingly brittle, occurring usually in combination.

arsenic (iir-sen'ik) or arsenical ('i-kal), adj. pertaining to or containing arsenic.

arsenlous (ar-se'ni-us), adj. pertaining to or containing arsenic.

arsenite (ar'sen-It), n. a salt of arseni- ous acid.

arsis (ar'sis), n. that part of a foot upon which the metrical accent is now placed. Formerly it was defined in exactly the opposite way. (See thesis.)

arson (ar'sn), n. the malicious firing of any building, agricultural produce, ship, &c., belonging to another, or one's own property, with the intent to defraud an insurance office.

art (art), 2nd pers. sing, indie, mood, pres. tense, of the verb to be. [Art is used only in solemn or poetic style.] (Sec be.)

art (art), n. the employment of means to the accomplishment of some end; the skilful adaptation and application to some purpose or use of knowledge or power acquired from Nature; a system of rules and established methods to facilitate the performance of certain actions; familiarity with such principles, and skill in applying them to an end or purpose, as of a practical, useful, or technical character: opposed to science; one of the fine arts; the fine

arts collectively; the power or quality of perceiving and transcribing the beautiful or Eesthetical in Nature, as in painting or sculpture; practical skill; dexterity; knack; cunning; artifice: pi. the branches of learning included in the prescribed course of academic study.

arterial (iir-ter'i-al), adj. pertaining to an artery or the arteries; contained in an artery.

arterlallzatlon (ar-ter-i-al-i-za'shun), n. the process of converting venous blood into arterial blood.

arterlalize (iir-ter'i-al-lz), v.t. to convert as venous blood into arterial blood by exposure to oxygen in the lungs.

arteriology (iir-te-ri-ol'o-ji), n. that branch of anatomy which treats of the arteries.

arterlqtomy (ar-ter-i-ot'o-mi), n. the opening of an artery; the part of anatomy treating of the dissection of the arteries.

artery (ar'ter-i), n. [pi. arteries (ar'- ter-iz)], one of a system of tubes or vessels which convey the blood from the heart to all parts of the body.

artesian well (ar-te'zhan wel), n. a well formed by boring, often to great depth, through strata the nature and arrangement of which permit of the permeation and accumulation of water; on being freed from constraint, the water rises by pressure in the tube and overflows at the surface.

artful (art'fool), adj. cunning; skilful.

artfully (art'fool-li), adv. in a cunning or skilful manner.

arthritis (ar-tlm'tis), n. any inflammation of the joints; the gout.

artichoke (ar'ti-chok), n. a plant with thistle-like foliage, and bearing large terminal flower-heads, the lower portion of which, consisting of a fleshy receptacle covered with thick scales, is used as food; the tuberous root of an American sunflower (Hdianlhus luberosis), used as a substitute for potatoes.

article (ar'ti-kl), n. a distinct portion or member; a single clause, item, or particular, as in a formal agreement or treaty; a concise statement; a prose composition, complete, in itself.

appellatory - archipelago




as a noun: n- a common, as distinguished from a proper, name; the designation of a class._

appellatory (ap-pel'ft-tO-ri), adj. containing an appeal.

appellee (apn-e-le'), re. the person appealed against; the defendant in an appeal.

append (ap-pend'), v.t. to attach. Rang, or suspend; subjoin or add to, as an accessory part; annex.

appendage (ap-pcn'daj), n. something appended or attached as a part of; something added as an adjunct.

appendicitis (ap-pen-di-si'tis), n. inflammation of the vermiform appendix or the caecum or blind gut.

appendix (ap-pen'diks), n. [pi. appendixes (ap^pen'dik-sez) & appendices (ap-pen'di-sez)], that which is added as supplemental.

apperception (ap-per-sep'shun), n. self-consciousness; the union of part of a new idea to one already in the mind (so Herbart); mental synthesis.

appertain (ap-er-tan'), v.i. to belong or pertain to, as by relation or custom.

appetite (ap'e-tit), n. the desire for gratification of some want, craving, or passion that is natural or acquired; the relish for food induced by keenness of stomach.

appetizer (ap'e-tl-zer), n. something that excites or whets the appetite.

applaud (ap-plawd'), v.t. to praise; express approval or approbation by clapping of the hands or acclamation.

applause (ap-plawz'), n. the expression of approval by clapping; approbation openly shown by acclamation.

apple (apl). n. the round fleshy fruit of the apple-tree and its numerous cultivated varieties; any fruit resembling an apple, as pineapple.

appliance (ap-pfl'ans), n. the act of applying; that which is used with, or as a part of, something else.

applicability (ap-li-ka-bil'i-ti), n. the quality of being applicable.

applicable (apli-ka-bl), adj. capable of being, or fit to be, applied.

applicant (apli-kant), n. one who applies, or prefers a request for something; a petitioner.

application (ap-li-ka'shun), n. the act of applying, putting to, or on; the thing applied; the applying or reducing to practice; the practical demonstration of a principle; the act of requesting; request; mental assiduousness.

applicative (ap'li-ka-tiv), adj. capable of being applied.

appllcatory (ap'li-ka-to-ri), adj. fitness to be applied: n. that which applies.

applied (ap-plid'), p.adj. practical.

applique (ap-Ii-ka ), n. a method of ornamentation in dress or upholstery in which portions or figures cut from other patterns are fixed or applied to a groundwork or foundation of any material. [French.]

apply (ap-plr), v.t. [p.l. & p.p. applied, applying], to place one to another; lay on; put into practice; devote to a particular purpose; refer or ascribe as fitting to a person or thing; address or direct; fix the mind upon: v.i. to suit; have connection with or reference to; make application to.

appoint (ap-point'), v.t. to fix; settle; found; make fast; establish, by decree; assign or ordain; fix the time and order of: furnish or equip; v.i. to decree; ordain: determine.

appointee (ap-poin-te'), n. one in whose favor an appointment is made.

appointment (ap-point'ment), n. the act of appointing; the assigning to an office or trust; the state of being appointed; the position or office assigned or held; a stipulation; an engagement; an arrangement to meet by mutual agreement; an ordinance or decree established by authority; furniture or equipment.

apportion (ap-por'shun), v.t. to assign By equal or proportionate division; distribute or set out in just proportions.

apportionment (ap-por'shun-ment), n. the act of apportioning or dividing into just shares.

apposite (ap'6-zit). adj. proper; fit; pertinent; well-adapted.

apposition (ap-6-zish'un), «. the act of adding; addition by application, or placing together; the placing of a second noun in the same case in APPOSITIONAL

ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nOrth, not; liuou, book; 46


juxtaposition to the first, which it characterizes or explains, as John the Baptist.

apposltional (ap-6-;zish'un-al)t adj. Belonging to apposition.

appraisal (ap-pra'zal), n. the act of appraising, or putting a price upon with a view to sale.

appraise (ap-praz'), v.t. to set a price upon; value; estimate the worth of, as by a licensed appraiser.

appraisement (ap-praz'mcnt), n. the act of valuing; an authorized valuation.

appraiser (ap-pra'zer), n. one who appraises; a person licensed and sworn to estimate the value of goods or estates.

appreciable (ap-pre'shi-a-bl), adj. capable of being appreciated, perceived, or estimated.

appreciate (ap-pre'shi-at), w./. to value; estimate the worth of; esteem highly; prize; be sensible of; raise in value.

appreciation (ap-pre'shi-a'shun), n. the just valuation, or proper estimate of worth or merit; a rise in value.

appreciative (ap-pre'shi-a-tiv), adj. exhibiting appreciation.

appreciatory (ap-pre'shi-a-to-ri), adj. expressive of admiration.

apprehend (ap-re-hend'), v.t. to take or lay hold of; seize; arrest; take a mental hold of; anticipate or expect: t'.i. to incline to belief; form a conception.

apprehensible (ap-re-hen'si-bl), arf;. capable of being apprehended or conceived.

apprehension, (ap-re-hen'shun), n. the act of seizure or laying hold of; arrest; the act of conceiving; perception; anticipation of evil; fear or distrust of the future.

apprehensive (ap-re-hen'siv), adj. capable of apprehending; quick to learn, or grasp; fearful of evil; anxious for the future.

apprentice (a-pren'tis), n. formerly, one bound or articled by indenture to serve a certain number of years to learn some trade or craft; a novice or tyro: c.i. to out under the care of a master for instruction in some trade or craft.

apprize (a-prfz'), v.t. to give notice to; inform.

approach (ap-proch'), v.i. to draw or grow near; approximate: v.t. to resemble, come near to.

approach (ap-proch'), n. the act of drawing near' access; passage.

approbate (ap ro-bat), v.t. to express approval of; license or sanction.

approbation (ap-ro-ba'shun), n. the act of approving; commendation.

approbative (ap'ro-ba-tiv), adj. approving; expressing approbation.

approbatlveness (ap-ro-ba'tiv-nes), n. rove of praise or fame;_ ambition.

approbatory (ap'ro^-ba-to-ri), adj. containing or expressing approbation.

appropriate (ap-pro'pn-at), v.t. to take to one's self in exclusion of others; claim or use, as by an exclusive right; set apart or assign to a particular use; annex a benefice to a religious corporation: adj. peculiar; fit; apt.

appropriation (ap-pro-pri-a'shun), n. the act of assigning to one's self, or to a particular use or person; application to a special use or purpose; the annexation of a benefice to a religious corporation.

appropriative (ap-pro'pri-a-tiv), adj. appropriating; making or tending to appropriation.

appropriator (ap-prO'pri-a-ter), n. one who appropriates; one who holds an appropriated benefice.

approyable (ap-prpo'va-bl), adj. deserving of or meriting approval.

approval (ap-prOov'al), n. approbation; sanction; ratification; consent.

approve (ap-prooV), v.t. to prove, test, or demonstrate; ratify; pronounce efficient or sufficient; be pleased or satisfied with; commend: t'.i. to express approval [usually followed by of}.

approver (ap-proo'ver), n. one w&o approves.

approvingly (ap-proo'ving-li), adv. in a commendatory manner.

approximate (ap-prok'si-mat), v.t. to bring or carry near; cause to approach: v.i. to draw near; approach closely: adj. near in resemblance or position.

approximately (ap-prok'si-mat-li), adv. very nearly out not absolutely. APPROXIMATION

ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, book; 47


approximation (ap-prok-si-ma'shun), n. the act of approximating; approach to anything as a standard; continual approach in exactness to the quantity sought, without actually arriving at it; a value nearly but not quite correct.

approximative (ap-prok'si-ma-tiv), adj. with a tendency to exactness.

approximative^ (ap-prok'si-ma-tiv- n), adv. in an approximative manner.

appurtenance (ap-pSr'te-nans), n. that which belongs or relates to something else; an adjunct or appendage ; that which belongs to, or is accessory to, an estate or property.

appurtenant (ap-p
apricot (a'pri-kot & ap'ri-kot), n. the fruit of a tree, allied to the plum.

April (a'pril), n. the fourth month of the year; named from the Greek goddess. Aphrodite.

April fool (foSl), n. one who is imposed upon or decieved in a jocular manner on April 1st, or All Fools' Day.

a priori (a pri-6'ri), from something prior; reasoning that proceeds from antecedent to consequent.

apron (a'prun), n. a portion of cloth, leather, or other material, worn as a protective or ornamental covering to the front of the person; a leathern covering for the legs, used in driving; the vent-cover of a cannon; the curved timber placed above the foremost end of a ship's keel; a platform at the entrance to a clock.

a propos (a pro-po'), adv. to the purpose; to the point; opportunely; in respect (followed by of): adj. seasonable; happy. Written also dpropos.

apse (aps), n. [pi. apses (ap'sez)]. a po- Iyg9nal or semicircular recess terminating the choir or other portion of a church.

apsidal (ap'si-dal), adj. pertaining to the apsides.

apsis (ap'sis), n. [pi. apsides (ap'si- dez)], one of two points in the orbit of a planet situated at the furthest or the least distance from the, central body or sun; the imaginary line connecting these points.

apt (apt), adj. suitable; pertinent; appropriate; liable; inclined; ready; expert; quick of apprehension.

apteral (ap'te-ral), adj. without wings; without side-columns.

apterous (ap'te-rus), adj. destitute of wings, or wing-like expansions.

apteryx (ap'te-riks;, n. a wingless and tailless bird peculiar to New Zealand. [Greek.]

aptitude (ap'ti-tud), n. capacity for anything; fitness; tendency; readiness in learning.

aqua (a'kwa), n. a Latin term much used in pharmacy in the abbreviated form of Aq., and denoting the addition of water.

aqua ammonite (am-mo'ni-6), water containing an infusion of ammonia- gas.

aquafortis (a'kwa-for'tis),' n. (strong water), impure nitric acid.

aquamarine (a'kwa-ma-ren'), n. a pale bluish-green variety of beryl; a color resembling the semi-precious beryl. Found largely in Russia.

aqua regla (re'ji-a), n. (royal water), a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, capable of dissolving gold.

aqua yitse (vl'te), n. (water of life), un- rectified alcohol; brandy and other ardent spirits.

aquarium (a-kwar'i-um), n. [pi. aquaria (a-kwar'i-a) & aquariums (a-kwar'i-umz)], a tank or globe for the keeping and cultivation of aquatic plants and animals; a series of such receptacles.

aquatic (a-kwat'jk), adj. pertaining to water; growing or living in or upon water; performed in or upon water, as sports: n. an animal or plant inhabiting water; pi. aquatic sports.

aquatint (a'kwa-tint), n. a species of etching resembling a water-color drawing in India ink or in sepia: an engraving produced by this process: v.l. to etch or engrave in aquatint.

aqueduct (ak'we-dukt), n. a structure in the form of 8 conduit or artificial channel for conducting water from a source, as for the supply of a large city.

aqueous (a'kwe-us), adj. of the nature of or abounding in, water; AQUIFORM

ate, Urm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, nCrth, not; boon, book; 4S


watery-; formed in or by means of water.

aqulform (a'kwi-f6rm), adj. having the form of water; liquid.

aquiline (ak'wi-lin & -lin), adj. belonging to or resembling ar. eagle; curved, as the beak of an eagle.

Arab (ar'ab), 11. a native of Arabia; a desert-dweller; one of the Arabic races spread over the African and Syrian deserts; a homeless street- urchin or outcast: adj. pertaining to Arabia or the Arabs.

arabesque (ar-a-besk'), n. the style of Arabic decorative art, which consists of the painting, inlaying, or carving in low relief of figures of plants, fruits, flowers, and foliage, variously combined or fantastically grouped: adj. pertaining to or exhibiting the arabesque style of ornamentation.

Arabic numerals (ar'a-bik num'cT- alz), the figures 0, 1, 2, 3, &c., of East Indian origin, used by the Arabs and introduced into Europe in the sixth century by Boethius.

arable (ar'a-bl), adj. fit for the plow; suited to the purposes of cultivation.

arbiter (iir'bi-ter), n. an umpire or judge; an arbitrator.

arbitrament (ar-bit'ra-ment), ?i. the decision of arbitrators; an award.

arbitrarily (ar-bi-tra'ri-li), adv. in a capricious manner; imperiously.

arbitrary (iir'bi-trar-i), adj. depending on the will of the arbiter; discretionary; capricious; imperious.

arbitrate (iir'bi-trat), v.i. to act as arbiter; to settle a dispute, as an umpire; mediate.

arbitration Uir-bi-tra'shun), n. the settlement of a dispute by an umpire.

arbitrator (ar'bi-tra-t6r), n. one chosen by the parties in a dispute to settle it; an umpire.

arbor (ar'ber), n. a bower; a shaded nook or walk.

Arbor Day (da), a day legally set apart in most States and Territories for planting trees. The date is not uniform but usually falls in April or May.

arboraceous (ar-bo-ra'shus), adj. pertaining to, or of the nature of, a tree or trees; living on or among trees.

arboreous (ar-bo're-us) or arboreal (ar-bo're-al), adj. pertaining to trees; wooded.

arbqresoenoe (iir-bo-res'ens), n. something having the shape of a tree, as certain crystals.

arborescent (ar-bo-res'ent), adj. treelike.

arboretum (ar-bo-re'tum), n. [pi. arboreta (ar-bo-re'ta) & arboretums (ar-bo-re'tumz)l, a place in which rare trees are cultivated and exhibited.

arboriculture (ar-ber-i-kul'tur), n. the cultivation of trees.

arborisation or arborization (ar-her- :-za'shun), n. a tree-like appearance.

arborise (ar-bcr-e-za'), adj. marked like the brandling of trees, as agates, enamels, &c. [French.]

arborons (ar'ber-us), adj. having the appearance or nature of an arbor.

arbor-vitae (iir-ber-vl'te), n. "tree of life," an evergreen tree extensively cultivated in parks and gardens.

arc (ark), n. a curved line or any part of a curve forming the segment of a circle; the portion of a circle described by the sun or any heavenly body in its apparent passage through the heavens.

arc-lamp (ark-lamp), n. a lamp having a luminous bridge or arc.

arc-light (ark-lit), a light produced by a current of electricity passing between t'vo carbon points placed at a short distance from each other.

arcade (ar-kad'), n. a series of arches supported by pillars; an arched gallery, or promenade, lined with shops.

Arcadian (ar-ka'di-an), adj. rurally simple. I'rom the great rustic territory, the Greek Arcadia.

arcanum (ar-ka'num), n. \pl. arcana (ar-ka'na)J, a secret; a mystery; a valuable elixir. [Latin.]

arch (arch), n. structure of brick or masonry, the component wedge- shaped parts of which follow a curved line; any curvature having the form of an arch: i'.f. to cover with an arch or arches; to bend or curve into the form of an arch: v.i. to form an arch or arches; curve: adj. chief; of the first rank; cunning; crafty; shrewd; waggish; mischievous; roguish; sportive; coy.

archaeological (ar-ke-o-loj'i-kal), adj. ARCH.EOLOGICALLY

ate, iirm, at. awl; me, merge, met; mite, mil; note, north, not; buon, book; 49


pertaining to the study of antiquities.

archaeologieally (ar-ke-o-loj'i-ka-li), adv. in accordance with the science of antiquities.

archaeologist or archeologist (ar-ke- ol'6-jist), n. one versed in the study of ancient things; an antiquarian.

archaeology or archeology (ar-ke-pl'- 6-ji), n. the science of antiquities; the study of prehistoric remains, or the relics of the earlier races of mankind, as the Ugro-Finnic, the Egyptian, the Phoenician, the Assyrian, the Greek, and the Roman.

archaic (ar-ka'ik), adj. pertaining to a remote period: characterized by antiquity; old-fashioned; antiquated.

archaism (ar'kii-izm), n. antiquity of style or use; an antiquated, old- fashioned, or obsolete word, expression, or idicin.

archangel (ark-an'jel), n. an angel of the highest order.

archangelic (ark-an-jel'ik), adj. pertaining to archangels.

archbishop (arch-bish'up), n. a chief bishop, one who supervises the bishops in his province, and also exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese.

archbishopric (arch-bish'up-rik), n. the jurisdiction, office, or see of an archbishop.

arch-board (arch'bord), n. the portion of the stern over the counter of a ship.

arch-brick (arch'brik), n. a wedge- shaped brick used in the construction of arches.

archdeacon (arch-de'kn), n. dignitary ranking next below a bishop, and one who acts as his vicar or vicegerent.

archdeaconry (arch-de'kn-ri), n. the place of residence of an archdeacon.

archdiaconate (arch-di-a'ko-nut). n. the office, rank, or jurisdiction of an archdeacon.

archducal (arch-du'kal), adj. pertaining to an archduke or an archduchy.

archduchess (iirch-duch'es), n. the wife of an archduke; a daughter of the Emperor of Austria.

archduchy (arch-duch'i), n. [pi. archduchies (arch-duch'iz)j, the territory or rank of an archduke or archduchess.

archduke (arch-duk'), n. a prince of the imperial house of Austria.

archdukedom (arch-dfik'dom), n. the dignity or territory of an archduke.

archeblosls (ar-ke-bi-6'sis), n. the alleged origination of living from non-living matter; abiogencsis.

archegony (ar-keg'o-ni), n. the doctrine of the origin of life.

archenemy (arch-cn'e-mi), n. a chief enemy; Satan.

archer (ar'cher), n. a bowman; one skilled in the use of the bow and arrow.

archer-fish (ar'cher-fish), n. a scaly- finned fish of the Java seas, which catches insects by darting drops of water upon them.

archery (iir'cher-i), n. the art, practice, or skill of one who uses the bow and arrow.

archetype (ar'ke-tip), n. the original type or pattern upon or after which a thing is made; a model; the original or fundamental type-structure from which a natural group of plants or animals are assumed to have descended; the original manuscript from which all copies or all of a set of copies were made. Such a group is called a "family."

archetypic (ar-ke-tip'ik), archetypal (iir-ke-ti'pal), or archetypical (iir- kc-tip'i-kal), adj. of or pertaining to an archetype.

archetyplcally (ar-ke-tip'i-ka-li), adj. after the manner of an archetype.

archlepiscopacy (ar-ki-e-pis'ko-pa-si), n. the rule or dignity of an archbishop.

archiepiscopal (ar-ki-S-pis'ko-pal), adj. pertaining to an archbishop or to his office.

archlepiscopate. See archiepiscopacy.

arching (arching), adj. curving like an arch: n. arched work.

archlpelagic (ar-ki-pe-laj'ik), adj. pertaining to a collection of islands with the sea dividing them.

archipelago (ar-ki-pel'a-go), n. \pl. archipelagoes & -gos (ar-ki-pel a- goz)], any sea or body of salt water interspersed with numerous islands; the island-group itself. [Greek.]

antagonistically - appellative



nt agon Ik tit-ally (an-tag ka-Ti), adv. in rivalry


-o-nis'ti- or opposi


antagonize (an-tag'6-nlz), v.t. to oppose; hinder; counteract; contend against; compete with: v.i. to act in opposition; neutralize.

antarctic (ant-iirk'tik), adj. opposite to arctic; pertaining to the south- polar regions; southern.

antecede (an-te-sed'), v.t. to precede or go before in time or space.

antecedence (an-tO-sG'dcns) or antecedency (an-te-se'den-si), n. precedence; the act or state of going before; priority.

antecedent (an-te-se'dent). adj. preceding: n. the substantive or noun to which a relative or other pronoun refers; the part of a conditional proposition upon which the other depends: pi. the previous events of a person's life.

antecedently (an-te-se'dent-li), adv. at a time preceding.

antecessor (an-te-ses'er), n. one who goes before (in office).

antechamber (an'te-cham-ber) , n. an apartment next the principal room, where persons wait for audience; an outer room.

antedate (an'te-dat) , v.t. to carry back to an earlier period; anticipate: n. a date earlier than the actual date.

antediluvian (an-te-di-lu'vi-an) , adj. of or pertaining to the world before the Flood ; belonging to very ancient times; antiquated: n. one who lived before the Flood. [Latin.]

antelope (an'te-lop), «. the name given to numerous species of deer-like ruminants, intermediate between the deer and the goat, with cylindrical, ringed horns.

antemeridian (an-te-me-rid'i-an) , adj. preceding noon. Often written A.M.

antemetic (ant-e-met'ik), adj. allaying vomiting: it. a medicine possessing this property.

antemundane (an-te-mun'dan), adj. before the creation of the world.

antenatal (an-te-na'tal), adj. before birth.

antenna (an-tcn'a), n. [pi. antenna? (an-ten'e)], the jointed horns or feelers upon the heads of insects and Crustacea.

antenuptial (an-te-nup'shal), adj. before marriage.

antepaschal (an-te-pasTcal), adj. before Easter; preceding the Jewish Passover. [Graeco-Latin.]

antepenult (an-tc-pe'nult) or ante- pemiltima (an-te-pe-nul'ti-ma), n. the last syllable but two of a word.

antepenultimate (an-te-pc-nul'ti- miit), adj. pertaining to the last but two: n. that which is last but two.

anteprandial (an-tc-pran'di-al), adj. before dinner.

anterior (an-ter'i-er), adj. more to the front; former.

anteriority (an-ter-i-or'i-ti), n. the quality of being anterior, especially in order of time; priority.

anteroom (an'tc-room), n. a room before, or forming an entrance to, another; an antechamber.

antetemple (an'tS-tem-pl), n. the portico of an ancient temple or church; the narthcx.

anthellon (an-the'li-on), n. [pi. anthelia (an-thc'li-a)], a halo or a colored ring or rings, opposite the sun, formed around the shadow of the head of the observer, as projected on a cloud or moist surface.

anthem (an'them), n. a composition from the Scriptures or liturgy set to sacred music.

anther (an'ther), n. the summit of the stamen of a flower containing the pollen or fertilizing dust.

antheroid (an'ther-oid), adj. having the form of an anther.

antbocarpous (an-tho-kar'pus), adj. having a fruit formed from " ovaries of several flowers, as pineapple.

anthography (an-thog'ra-fi), n. scientific description of flowers.

anthological (an-tho-loj'i-kal), pertaining to an anthology; consisting of beautiful extracts, more especially of those from the poets.

anthologist (an-thol'6-jist), n. one who compiles an anthology.

anthology (an-thol'o-ji), n. a collection of choice poems, epigrams, and fugitive pieces by various authors; a hymnal.

anthracene (an'thra-sen), n. a complex hydrocarbon obtained from coal- tar; paranaphthalin.





ute, arm, at, nw!; me, merge, met; mite, init; note, north, not: boon, book; 39


anthracite (an'thra-slt), n. a non- bituminous coal which burns without smoke; blind-coal; glance-coal; stone-coal; hard-coal. antbracitlc (an-thra-sit'ik), adj. resembling, or of the nature of, anthracite. ... (an'thraks), ?*. [pi. anthraces (an'thra-sez)], a carbuncle, or malignant boil; the splenic fever of sheep and cattle, caused by the presence of a bacillus in the blood and tissues; the carbuncular disease caused in man by inoculation from affected sheep and cattle. [Greek.] anthropography (an-thro-pog'ra-fi), n. that branch of anthropology which treats of the actual geographical distribution of the human race, and the local variations of its different divisions. [Greek.]

anthropoid (an'thro-poid), adj. re- sembfing man: n. one of the higher apes resembling man. [Greek.] Anthropoidea (an-thro-poi'de-a), n. pi. a sub-order of primate mammals, including early man, the gorillas, apes, and monkeys. anthropological (an-thro-po-lo j 'i-kal),

adj. relating to anthropology. anthropologist (an-thro-pol'o-jist), re.

a student of anthropology. anthropology (an-thro-pol'o-ji), re. the science of man, considered zoologically or ethnographically. anthropometric (an-thro-po-met/rik), adj. relating to the measurement or proportions of the human body. anthropometrically (an-thro-po-met'- ri-ka-li), adv. in an anthropological manner, or by means of anthropometry-

anthropometry (anrthro-pom'e-tri), n. the measurement of the human body; the department of anthropology- relating to such measurement of persons at various ages, and in different tribes, races, occupations, &c. anthropomorphic (an-thro-po-mc">r'- fik), adj. characterized by anthropomorphism; having the appearance and characteristics of Dian._ anthropomorphism (an-thro-po-mflr'- fizm), n. the ascription of a human form and attributes to the Deity, or to supernatural beings. anthropophagi (an-thro-pof a-ji), man-eaters; cannibals. [Greek.]

anthropophagous (an-thro-pof'a- gus), adj. feeding on human flesh.

antic (an'tik), adj. grotesque: n. a clown; a trick; a grotesque gesture.

Antichrist (an'ti-krlst), n. an opponent of Christ, especially the great personal opponent expected to appear before the end of the world (I John ii. 22); a false prophet (Mark xiii. 5, C).

antichristian (an-ti-kris'chan), n. one who is an opponent of the Christian religion: adj. pertaining to Antichrist; opposed to the Christian religion.

anticipant (an-tis'i-pant), adj. that which operates beforehand: n. one who looks forward.

anticipate (an-tis'i-pSt), v.t. to take beforehand: use in advance; look for as certain; deal with beforehand: v.i. to treat of something before the proper time.

anticipation (an-tis-i-pa'shun), n. the act of taking beforehand; expectation; hope; preconception.

anticipative (an-tis'i-pa-tiv) or anticipatory (an-tis'i-pii-to-ri), adj. taking beforehand; anticipating.

anticlimax (an'ti-kll-maks), n. a ludicrous descent in thought and expression; bathos.

anticyclone (anti-sl'klon), n. a meteorological condition in which the ordinary features of a cyclone are reversed, i.e. the winds, which are light, flow from, instead of towards, the center.

anticyclonlo (an-ti-si-klon'ik), adj. pertaining to an anticyclone.

antidotal (an'ti-do-tul). adj. of the nature or quality of an antidote.

antidotally (an-ti-do'ta-li), adv. in the manner of an antidote.

antidote (an'ti-dot), n. a substance which acts medicinally as a counteractive to the effects of poison or disease; that which annuls or tends to prevent the evil effects of anything else; a remedy.

anlif:it (an'ti-fat), adj. available for preventing or reducing fatness: n. a remedy against fatness.

antifebrile (an-ti-feb'ril), adj. capable of allaying fever: n. a fever medicine or antipyretic.

antlfebrine (an-ti-feb'rin), re. acetani




lide, or antipyrine, used in medicine as an antipyretic, to allay fever and reduce the temperature.

antiiiiasU (an'ti-mask), n. a species of drollery introduced as an interlude between arts of a more serious nature. Written also antimasque.

antimasonic (an-ti-ma-son'ik), adj. opposed to the principles of freemasonry.

antimonarchical (an-ti-mo-niir'ki- kal), ailj. opposed to monarchy.

antimonial (an-ti-mo'ni-al), adj. pertaining to antimony; composed of, or possessing the qualities, of antimony.

antimoniate (an-ti-mo'ni-at), n. a salt of antimonic acid.

antimonlc (an-ti-mon'ik) or antimo- iiious (an-ti-mo'ni-us), adj. relating to, composed of, or obtained from antimony.

antimqnite (an'ti-mo-mt), n. native sulphide of antimony.

antimony (an'ti-mo-ni), n. a white lustrous metal, entering largely into medicinal preparations and various important alloys, such as pewter and Britannia-metal.

antinomianism (an-ti-no'mi-an-izm), n. the tenets of the Antinomian sect; opposition to law.

antinomy (an-tin'o-mi), n. [pi. antinomies (an-tin'o-miz)], the opposition of one law or part of a law to another; or the opposition of man to any law.

antiparallel (an-ti-par'a-lcl), adj. running parallel, but in an opposite direction: n. one of two or more lines making equal angles with two other lines, but in contrary order.

antipathetic lan-ti-pa-thet'ik), adj. possessing :i natural antipathy or aversion [with In],

antipathic (an-ti-path'ik), adj. pertaining to antipathy; adverse; opposite.

antipathy (an-tip'a-thi), n. [pi. antipathies cm-tip'a-thiz)], natural aversion; an instinctive dislike; the object of aversion (followed in composition by to, against, between, aiulfar).

antiperiodlc (an-ti-pe-ri-od'ik), adj. preventive of return in periodic or intermittent diseases: ;i. a medicine for periodic diseases.

antiphlogistic (an-ti-flo-jis'tik), adj. efficacious in counteracting fever or

inflammation: n. any remedy which serves to check inflammatory symptoms.

antiphon (an'ti-fon) or antlphone (-fon), n. a chant or hymn rendered alternately by two choirs, as in English cathedral services.

antlphonal (an-tif'o-nal), adj. characterized by antiphony or responsive singing: n. a collection of antiphons.

antiphonaiy (an-tif cwia-ri), n. [pi. antiphonaries (an-tif'o-na-riz)], a book of responses used in the services: adj. antiphonal, or responsive.

antiphonetic (an-ti-fo-net'ik), adj. similar in sound; applied to words which rhyme.

antiphony (an-tif'o-ni), n. [pi. antiph- omes (an-tif'6-niz)]t the alterant or responsive rendering of psalms or chants by a dual choir; a musical setting of sacred verses arranged for alternate singing.

antiphrasls (an-tif'ra-sis), n. the employment of a word, or words, in a sense contrary to its, or their, true meaning, as when the ancients called the Funes "the Kindly Ones."

antipodal (an-tip'o-dal). adj. pertaining to the antipodes; opposite or extreme.

antipode (an'ti-pod), n. [pi. antipodes (an-tip'6-dez)], one who resides on the opposite side of the earth; that which is directly opposite to another.

antipodean (an-tip-o-de'an), adj. belonging to the antipodes: n. one who resides on the opposite side of the earth.

antipodes (an-tip'6-dez), those who, residing at opposite sides of the globe, have their feet directly opposed; the two portions of the earth's surface which are exactly opposite to each other; the direct opposite of a person or thing.

antipyretic (an-ti-pi-ret'ik), adj. preventive of, or remedial to, fever: n. a remedy of such nature.

antipyrine (an-ti-pl'rin), n. a drug obtained from coal-tar, employed for the relief of neuralgia, nervous headaches, and the reduction of heat in fevers.

antiquarian (an-ti-kwar'i-an), adj. pertaining to antiquaries or to antiquity: n. an antiquary.

ute, ttrm, at, awl; me, merge, met: mite, rait: note, north, not; boon, hook; 41



ant iquarianlsm (an-ti-kwar'i-an-izm), n. the attachment to what is old or antiquated which characterizes the antiquary; the study or collecting of antiquities.

antiquary (an'ti-kwiir-i), n. one who is attached to ancient things, and is learned in their history; one who collects antiquities for the purpose of study.

antiquated (an'ti-kwa-ted), p.adj. grown old; old-fashioned; obsolete; ancient.

antique (an-tek'), adj. of or belonging to a former age; ancient: n. something of great age; a relic of antiquity.

antiqueness (an-tek'nes), n. the quality of being ancient, or having the appearance of antiquity.

antiquity (an-tik'wi-ti), n. [pi. antiquities (an-tik'wi-tiz)], great age; ancientness; early ages; the people or races of ancient times; that which belonged to, or survives from, ancient times; a relic.

antiscorbutic (an-ti-sk6r-bu'tik), adj. & n. counteractant or remedial to scurvy.

anti-Semite (an-ti-sem'It), n. one who favors the social and political persecution of Jews.

anti-Semitic (an-ti-sem-it'ik), adj. pertaining to, or characterized by, anti-Semitism.

anti-Semitism (an-ti-sem'it-izm), n. antagonism to the Jewish race.

antisepsis (an-ti-sep'sis), n. the exclusion of bacteria from wounds, &c., by the use of antiseptics.

antiseptic (an-ti-sep'tik), adj. destructive to the germs of disease or putrefaction: n. a substance that acts as a preventive to putrefaction.

antJslavery (an-ti-sla'ver-i), adj. opposed to slavery: n. opposition to slavery-.

antispasmodlc (an-ti-spaz-mqd'ik), adj. counteractive to, or curative of, spasms: n. a medicine having such an effect.

antisplenetlc (an-ti-sple-net'ik), adj. of use remedially in diseases of the spleen: n. a medicine for spleen diseases.

antistropbe (an-tis'tro-fe), n. in the ancient Greek chorus, the alternating part immediately following the

strophe and sung in moving to the right, the strophe having been sung when moving to the left.

antithesis (an-tith'e-sls), ?i. [pi. antitheses (an-tith'e-sCz)]. opposition; contrast; expression by contrast or opposition of words or sentiments.

antithetic (an-ti-thet'ik) or antithetical (an-ti-tliet'i-kal), adj. pertaining to, of the nature of, or containing antithesis.

antithetically (an-ti-thet'i-ka-li), adv. in the manner or by means of antithesis.

antitoxin (an-ti-toks'in), n. a serum used hypodermic-ally as a preventive of, or cure for, diphtheria.

antitrade (an'ti-tra
antitype (an'ti-tip), n. that which preceded the type, and of which the type is the prefigurement or representation.

antitypical (an-ti-tip'i-kal). adj. pertaining to, or of the nature of, an antitype.

antizymotlo (an-ti-zi-mot'ik), adj. preventing fermentation; n. the agent so used.

antler (ant'ler), n. the individual branches of a stag's horns; the horn in its complete condition.

antonym (an'to-nirn), n. a word of opposite meaning.

anurous (a-nu'rus), adj. having the character of the Anura, as the frogs and toads, which are tailless when adult.

anus (a'nus), n. the terminal portion of the rectum; the excremcntal orifice.

anvil (an'vil), n. an iron block used for the hammering and shaping of metals.

anxiety (ang-zl'e-ti), n. [pi. anxieties (ang-zl'e-tiz)], a condition of mental uneasiness arising from fear or solicitude.

anxious (ang'shus), adj. deeply concerned; very solicitous; apprehensive.

any (en'i), adj. & pron. one, indeterminately, unlimited; some, an indefinite number, quantity, or degree: adj. one indefinitely; (pi.) some: pron. one; anyone; (pi.) some: adv. ANYBODY

ate, arm, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, book; 42


to any extent; at all; in any degree

(used with comparatives, as "any

better"). anybody (en'i-bod-i), n. any person;

some one of importance. anyhow (en'i-hou), adv. in any way or

manner; in any case; at any rate. anything (en'i-thing), n. any object

as distinguished from a person;

aught; with as or like, as "It rains

like anything."

anyway (-wa), adv. in any manner. anywhere (-hwar), adv. in any place. any-whithtT (en'i-hwi(/i'er), adv. toor

towards any place. any- wise (en i-wlz), adv. in any way or

manner; anyhow. aorist (a'5-rist), n. a tense in Grqek

verbs, denoting definite.

past time in

aorta (a-6Vta), n. [pi. aortse (-te)J, the chief artery or main trunk of the arterial system, opening from the left ventricle of the heart and supplying all parts of the body, excepting the lungs, with arterializcd blood.

aortic (a-6r'tik), adj. pertaining to the aorta.

aortitls (a-6r-tl'tis) , n. inflammation of the aorta.

apaoe (a-pas'), adv. quickly; at a quick pace; speedily.

apart (a-ptirt'), adv. separately; aside; asunder.

apartment (a-part'ment), n. a room or part 9f a divided building: pi. a set or suite or two or more rooms of a house set apart as lodgings.

apathetic (ap-a-thet'ik), adj. devoid of, or insensible to, feeling or emotion.

apathetically (ap-a-thct'i-ka-li), adv. in an apathcticul manner.

apathy (ap'a-thi), n. [pi. apathies (ap'a-thi/.)], lack of feeling; want of passion or emotion; indifference.

apatite (ap'a-tit), n. a crystalline phosphate of lime.

ape (ftp), n. a tailless monkey having teeth in number and appearance as man; a silly mimic; a fool. The family of the apes includes the gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, &c.: v.t. to imitate servilely; mimic, as an ape mimics man.

apeak (a-pek'), adv. nearly vertical in position.

aperient (a-pe'ri-ent), adj. gently laxa

tive; opening the bowels: n. a mild laxative medicine.

aperiodic (a-pe-ri-od'ik), adj. without periodicity,

aperitive (a-per'i-tiv), adj. the same as aperient. [French.]

aperture (ap'er-tur), n. an opening; a perforation or passage; the space between two intersecting right lines; the diameter of the exposed part of the object-glass of a telescope or other optical instrument.

apetalous (a-pet'a-lus), adj. without petals or corolla.

apex (a'pcks), n. [pi. apices (ap'i-sez) & apexes (a'pek-sez)], the point, tip, or summit of anything.

aphagla (a-fil'ji-a), n. inability to swallow. [Greek.]

aphasia (a-fa'zi-a), n. loss of the power of speech, or the appropriate use of words, due to disease or injury to the brain. [Greek.]

aphelion (af-e'li-on), n. [pi. aphelia (af-e'li-a)], that point in the orbit of a planet or a comet which is farthest from the sun.

aphid (af'id), n. a plant-louse belonging to the genus Aphis.

aphldlan (a-fid'i-an), ?i. an aphid: adj. pertaining to the genus Aphis.

Aphis (a'fis), n. [pi. Aphides (af'i-dez)], the genus of plant-suckers, to which the aphides belong; a member of the genus.

aphorism (af'o-rizm), n. a concise and pithy statement of a rule or precept; a maxim.

aphrodisiac (af-ro-diz'i-ac), n. a drug that excites sexual desire.

aphthong (af'thong), n. a letter or letters not sounded in a word.

apiary (a'pi-a-ri), n. [pi. apiaries (a'pi- a-riz)], a place where bees are kept; a bee-house.

apiece (a-pcs'), adv. to or for each; each; severally.

apish (a'pish), adj. resembling an ape in manners: foppish; foolish.

aplomb (a-p!6ng'), n. self-possession; assurance. [French.]

Apocalypse (a-pok'a-hps), n. the last Dook of the New Testament, Revelation.

Apocalyptic (a-pok-a-lip'tik), adj. pertaining to or containing the Apocalypse.

ate, iirin, at, awl; me, merge, met; mite, mit; note, north, not; boon, book;




apocope (a-ppk'e-pe), n. the cutting off or deletion of the last letter or syllable of a word.

apocrypha (a-pok'ri-fa), used as a sing, with pi. apocryphas (a-pok'- ri-faz), a writing, or something, of doubtful authorship; certain writings received by some Christians as an authentic part of the Holy Scriptures, but rejected by others, as for instance Judith, Ecclesiasticus, etc.

apocryphal (a-pok'ri-f al), adj. of doubtful authority; uncanonical; of or pertaining to the apocrypha.

apocryphally (a-pok'ri-fa-li), adv. in an apocryphal manner; doubtfully.

apod (ap'od), n. an animal without feet.

apodosis (a-pod'o-sis), n. the latter portion, or consequent clause, of a conditional sentence.

apogean (aj>-6-je'an) or apogelc (ap- o-je'ik), adj. pertaining to the apogee.

apogee (ap'o-je), n. that point in the orbit of a planet which is most distant from the earth.

apologetic (a-pol-6-jet'ik), adj. in the way of defense or apology.

apologetically (a-pol-6-jet'i-ka-li), adv. in an apologetic manner.

apologetics (arpol-6-jet'iks), n. the defense and vindication of the principles and laws of the Christian belief.

apologia (ap-o-lo'gi-a), n. a defense of any one's action or principles, as Cardinal Newman's famous "Apologia." [Greek.]

apologist (a-pol'6-jist), n. one who apologizes; one who pleads in extenuation or defense of the actions or principles of another.

apologize (a-pol'o-jiz), v.i. to make an apology or excuse; to express regret or make amends for anything said or done, on one's own behalf or that of another: v.t. to write a defense of; to defend.

apologue (ap'6-log), n. a moral fable; a fiction or allegory emnodying a moral application, as yEsop's Fables.

apology (a-pol'6-ji), n. [pi. apologies (a-pol'o-Jiz)], a vindication or excuse; something spoken, written, or offered in defense or extenuation; an explanation by way of amends.

apophthegm. See apothegm.

apoplectic (ap-o-plek'tik), adj. pertaining to, or of the nature of, apoplexy; afflicted with apoplexy.

apoplexy (ap'6-plek-si), n. the sudden loss of consciousness and motive power, resulting from the rupture of a brain-vessel.

aport (a-port'), adv. on or towards the port of left side of a ship.

apostasy (a-pos'ta-si), n. [pi. apostasies (a-pos'ta-siz)], the forsaking or abandonment of what one has hitherto professed or adhered to, as faith, principles, or party.

apostate (a-pos'tat), n. one who has forsaken or apostatized his faith or party; one who renounces his profession after having been in holy orders: adj. false; traitorous; renegade.

apostatical (ap-os-tut'i-kal), adj. rebellious, in the manner of apostasy; apostate.

apostatize (a-nos'ta-tiz), v.i. to abandon one's faith, church, or party; change one's religion for another.

a posteriori (a pos-te-ri-o'ri), reasoning founded on observation of facts, effects, or consequences, by means of which the causes are reached.

apostle (a-pos'l), n. one charged with a high mission; one of the twelve persons, especially selected by Christ to propagate His gospel (Luke vi. 13); one who performed apostolic functions, as St. Paul (I Cor. i. 1); the first missionary who plants the Christian faith in any region; one who labors with special success as a moral or social reformer.

Apostles' Creed (a-pos'lz kred), n. the shortest of the three creeds, so named as containing a summary of apostolical doctrine.

apostle-spoon (a-pos'1-spoon), n. a spoon having a figure of one of the Apostles at the top of the handle.

apostolate (a-pos'to-lat), n. apostle- ship (now restricted to the dignity or office of the Pope).

apostolic (ap-os-tol'ik), adj. & n. of or pertaining to an apostle or apostles, and their age, doctrine, or practice; papal.

apostolic succession (suk-sesh'un), n. the regular and uninterrupted transmission of episcopal authority by bishops from the Apostles.

ate, arm, at, aw); me, merge, met; mite, mit: note, nfirth, not; boon, book; 44



apostrophe (a-pos'tro-fc), n. a breaking off in a speech to address directly a person or persons who may or may not be present; the omission from a word of one or more letters, such omission being indicated by the sign ('); the sign (.') so employed in writing or printing.

apostrophic (ap-o-strof'ik), adj. pertaining to, or of the nature of, an apostrophe.

apostrophize (a-pos'tro-fiz), v.l. to address by apostrophe; omit a letter or letters; mark an omission by the sign ('): v.i. to make an apostrophe or short digressive address in speaking.

apothecary (a-poth'e-ka-ri), n. [pi. apothecaries (a-poth'e-ka-riz)], one who prepares and dispenses medicines ana drugs for profit; one who is licensed to prescribe; a pharmacist.

apothecaries' weight (a-poth'e-ka-riz wat), n. the weight used for dispensing drugs, and comprising the pound (12 oz.), the ounce (8 drachms), the drachm (3 scruples), the scruple (20 grs.), and the grain.

apothegm (ap'o-them), n. a pithy saying, embodying a wholesome truth or precept. Also spelt apophthegm.

apotheosis (ap-o-the'o-sis),n. [pi. apotheoses (ap-o-the'6-sez)], deification; the god-like personification bestowed upon deceased emperors under the Roman Empire; excessive honor paid to a distinguished person; canonization.

apotheosize (ap-o-the'6-siz), v.t. to exalt to the rank of a god; deify.

appal (ap-pawl')i v.t. [p.t. & p.p. appalled, appalling], to frighten; depress or discourage by fear; dismay; terrify.

appalling (ap-pawling), p.adj. inspiring horror or dismay.

apparatus (ap-a-ra'tus), n. sing. & pi. an outfit of tools, utensils, or instruments adapted to the accomplishment of any branch of work, or for the performance of an experiment or operation; a set of such appliances; a group or set of organs concerned in the performance of a single function. Also, apparatus criticus (kri'ti-cus).

apparel (a-par'el), n. clothing; ves

ture; garb, or dress; the equipment of a vessel: v.t. [p.t. & p.p. appareled, appareling], to clothe or adorn; furnish or fit out.

apparent (ap-par'ent), adj. open to view; capable of being readily perceived or understood; evident; seeming, but not real.

apparition (ap-a-rish'un), n. a visible object; an appearance of something not real or tangible; a ghost or specter; the first appearance of a luminary after obscuration: opposed to occultation.

appeal (ap-pel'), v.t. to transfer or refer to a superior court or judge; to refer to another person or tribunal; entreat, call for, or invoke aid, sympathy, or mercy: n. a call or invocation for aid or sympathy; the right of appeal; a summons to answer a charge; a call or reference to another; recourse; the removal of a cause from an inferior to a superior court, the latter having the power to revise the decision of the lower tribunal.

appear (ap-per'), v.i. to be or become visible; come before; seem.

appearance (ap-per'ans), n. the act of becoming visible; the object seen; a phenomenon; an apparition; semblance; outward show; the act of coming before the public; coming into court; look; bearing or aspect.

appeasable (ap-pe'za-bl), adj. capable of being appeased.

appease (ap-pez'), v.t. to allay; assuage; quiet; satisfy; pacify.

appeasement (ap-pez'ment), n. the act of appeasing; the state of being appeased.

appellant (ap-pel'ant), n. one who appeals to a higher court; one who appeals to a judge, or to any tribunal.

appellate (ap-pel'at), adj. pertaining to appeals; naving cognizance of appeals: n. the person appealed against or called upon to appear.

appellation (ap-e-la shun), n. the name, title, or designation by which a person or thing is called or known; the act of appealing.

appellative (ap-pel'a-tiv), adj. serving to distinguish, as a name or denomination of a group or class; common,